هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی عوامل موثر بر تضعیف کارآفرینی در دانش اموختگان دانشگاهی دانشگاه های پیام نور استان تهران می باشد. روش پژوهش با توجه به هدف آن، کاربردی و از حیث شیوه اجرا، آمیخته (کیفی-کمی), از نوع تحلیل مضمون و از نظر ماهیت از نوع تحقیق های اکتشافی می باشد. جامعه آماری پژوهش در بخش کیفی شامل 11 نفر از خبرگان در حوزه کارآفرینی و اساتید مدیریت و نمونه گیری به صورت هدفمند می باشد. در بخش کمی، جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل دانشجویان سال آخر مشغول به تحصیل 3750 نفر می باشند. حجم نمونه بر اساس فرمول کوکران 384 نفر می باشد. از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای (PPS) استفاده شد. ابزارگردآوری داده ها در بخش کیفی مصاحبه نیمه ساخت یافته (بعد کیفی) و در بخش کمی پرسشنامه برگرفته از بخش کیفی می باشد. تجزیه و تحلیل در بخش کیفی به صورت تحلیل مضمون و در بخش کمی تحلیل عاملی تائیدی با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS و PLS می باشد. خروجی پژوهش به ترتیب تاکید بر تقویت چهار متغیر به ترتیب شامل توانمندی های فردی و شخصی و صلاحیتهای دانش آموختگان، تقویت ارکان آموزشی مرتبط با توسعه کارافرینی در دانشگاه، تقویت شرایط حمایتی دولت (تسهیلگری، حمایتی و تشویقی) و در نهایت مداخله گری در محیط های شش گانه موثر بر کارآفرینی دانشگاهی دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identifying factors affecting the weakening of entrepreneurship in graduates of Payam Noor universities in Tehran province
The aim of the current research is to identify the factors affecting the weakening of entrepreneurship in university graduates of Payam Noor universities in Tehran province. According to its purpose, the research method is applicable in terms of purpose, and mixed (qualitative-quantitative) in terms of implementation; of thematic analysis type, and exploratory in terms of the nature. The statistical population of the research in the qualitative part includes 11 experts in the field of entrepreneurship and management professors, selected by purposeful sampling. In the quantitative part, the statistical population of the research includes 3750 final year students. The sample size is 384 people based on Cochran's formula. Multi-stage cluster sampling (PPS) was used in this part. The data collection tool is a semi-structured interview (qualitative dimension) in the qualitative part; and in the quantitative part, the questionnaire is taken from the qualitative part. The analysis in the qualitative part is thematic analysis, and in the quantitative part it is confirmatory factor analysis using SPSS and PLS software. The output of the research is to emphasize the strengthening of four variables, including the individual and personal capabilities and qualifications of the graduates, strengthening the educational elements related to the development of entrepreneurship in the university, strengthening the government's support conditions (facilitation, support and encouragement), and finally intervention in the six environments effective on academic entrepreneurship.
An integrated view of human resources in several discussions of higher education, employment, national development, transition from the concept of first and second generation universities and the tendency towards third generation universities and similar cases has caused the training of entrepreneurial personnel to be one of the basic tasks in leader educational institutions such as first-tier universities (Yazdan Panah & Zabeidi, 2017). Entrepreneurship education and academic entrepreneurship empowers human resources in a standard process and leads to an innovative business in the university or near the university, alone or with others. From the point of view of students, entrepreneurship is attractive due to the simultaneous response to three needs of affiliation, belonging, and success. Most students' life experiences have shown that the tendency towards academic entrepreneurship makes it easier to find a job and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of students, creating space for independent work experience and facilitating the process of realizing individual and organizational entrepreneurship (Grecu & Denes, 2017).
Therefore, the researcher asked the main question: what are the factors affecting the weakening of entrepreneurship in university graduates of Payam Noor universities in Tehran province?
The entrepreneurial university and academic entrepreneurship in the new world has been removed from the emphasis of mere theory and are considered as one of the main drivers of social systems and the link between the university (technology and innovation systems), industry (production systems), and the government (the factor of creating development conditions) (Boruck Klein & Cesar Mafra, 2020). Based on this, the three concepts of entrepreneurship education, academic entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial university are considered as related concepts and generally having a longitudinal relationship with each other (Klucznik, 2021).
Academic entrepreneurship depends on the entrepreneurial behavior of the members and active human resources in the university. Management studies show that identity development precedes behavioral actions and in order to realize academic entrepreneurship focused on students, it is necessary to strengthen their entrepreneurial identity in different ways as much as possible, and it is based on the level of behavioral expectations (Hayter et al, 2022).
Mahmudi Khamiri Pur et al, (2022) investigated the identification of factors affecting the improvement of faculty members with an entrepreneurial approach (case study: Payam Noor University, Hormozgan Province). Based on the interviews conducted with experts in the field of human resources improvement, 71 basic themes along with 25 organizing themes were identified, and categorized based on the conclusion of the researcher in 5 comprehensive dimensions including the dimensions of individual improvement, organizational improvement, educational improvement, research improvement, and professional improvement.
Karimpour Malekshah et al, (2022) investigated the identification of components and measuring the relationships of entrepreneurial knowledge dimensions in large-scale cooperatives. Based on the findings obtained from the research, the pattern of entrepreneurial knowledge formation in large-scale cooperatives has four dimensions: individual characteristics, infrastructure and organization, environment, and support. Also, in order to measure the effectiveness and affectability of the dimensions together, with the help of the Dimtel method, it was determined that the causes include individual characteristics, infrastructures, and the organization; and the effects include the environment and support.
According to its purpose, the research method is applicable, and in terms of implementation, it is mixed (qualitative-quantitative), of thematic analysis type, and in terms of the nature, is exploratory type research. The statistical population of the research in the qualitative part is experts in the field of entrepreneurship and management professors, entrepreneurs who have more than 5 years of work experience and have relevant research activities in this field (project manager or main collaborator), and familiar with the structure and activity procedure of Payam Noor University (a previous student of the university, a lecturer at Payam Noor University, or have other meaningful and effective connections with this university). Sampling method in the qualitative dimension is targeted sampling; the research was conducted on the selected and introduced people as the statistical population, and eleven experts were selected as the research sample. In the quantitative part, the statistical population of this research includes final year students studying in 18 units and centers of Payam Noor in Tehran province in multiple disciplinary groups of humanities, basic sciences, technical and engineering; boys and girls separated, as well as graduates of the year of 1401 Payam Noor universities in the province. The number of qualified students is around 1750 and the number of graduating students is around 2000 (previous years). According to this rule, the total number of people in the statistical community under investigation is 3750 people. According to Cochran's formula, the sample size is equivalent to 384 questionnaires. Combined methods, semi-structured interview (qualitative dimension) and questionnaire survey of the target population and library studies (quantitative dimension) have been used collect information in this research.
The analysis is thematic in the qualitative part, and confirmatory factor analysis in the quantitative part using SPSS and PLS software. The output of the research is to emphasize the strengthening of four variables, including the individual and personal capabilities and qualifications of the graduates, strengthening the educational elements related to the development of entrepreneurship in the university, strengthening the government's support conditions (facilitation, support and encouragement), and finally intervention in the six effective environments on academic entrepreneurship.
The current research has been conducted with the aim of identifying factors affecting entrepreneurship among college graduates of Payam Noor universities in Tehran province. The result of this research is in agreement with the results of Mahmudi Khamiri Pur et al, (2022), Karimpour Malekshah et al, (2022), Daneshniya et al, (2021), Akbari et al, (2020), Dorri et al, (2020) ), Keshavarz (2014). Akbari et al, (2020) showed that the identification analysis of 20 components is stated in five main categories: 1- strategy and management, 2- structure and processes, 3- culture, 4- educational system, and 5- network of interactions as main components and categories of the formation of an entrepreneurial university. Finally, in order to show the importance and priority of these components as an input to the decisions of policy makers in the field of higher education to move the country's universities towards entrepreneurial universities, the hierarchical group analysis method has been used. In this regard, while using the opinions of 7 specialists and technical experts in the field of higher education, the weight and priority of the categories and components have been calculated and presented. Based on this, the five components of leadership, entrepreneurial organization, resource management, entrepreneurial attitude and laws have the highest weight and importance.
According to the research results, the following suggestions were made:
In order to improve the skills and competences and individual qualifications of the graduates, proposing the development of the concept of education in addition to the topics of education, holding skill courses, providing suitable platforms and conditions for taking role models and finding role models from entrepreneurial people are part of the recommendations that can be presented. In the aspect of improving skills, investments should be made on the technical skills, management skills and communication skills of the graduates, respectively.
In order to strengthen and improve the attitudes, behaviors and values of graduates and students regarding entrepreneurship, it is necessary to work on the psychological field of people and change values and improve behaviors with concrete value creation.