هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، طراحی الگوی پارادایمی توسعه فرهنگ عمومی در برنامه درسی دوره ابتدایی با رویکرد داده بنیاد است. شرکت کنندگان پژوهش، شامل متخصصان و خبرگان حوزه مطالعات برنامه درسی و علوم اجتماعی بودند که انتخاب آن ها به صورت هدفمند ، از نوع گلوله برخی انجام گرفت. داده های پژوهش از طریق مطالعه گستره نظری پژوهش و مصاحبه با خبرگان جمع آوری شدند. در مجموع با 12 نفر از خبرگان مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته انجام شد و پژوهشگر در داده ها به اشباع نظری رسید. برای تحلیل داده های به دست آمده از روش تحلیل استراوس کوربین استفاده شد که الگوی مذکور پس از مرحله کدگذاری باز ، محوری و انتخابی به صورت پارادیمی در 5 بعد شرایط علی، شرایط زمینه ای، راهبردها، شرایط مداخلهگر، پیامدها و مشتمل بر 17 مؤلفه ضرورت و نیاز ها، اهداف و مقاصد برنامه، ایدئولوژی حاکم برجامعه، مبانی برنامه ریزی درسی، رویکرد برنامه، مواد و منابع یادگیری، فضا (مکان)، زمان، عوامل سازمانی، مشارکت والدین، یادگیری ضمنی (برنامه غیر رسمی- برنامه درسی پنهان)، محتوا، تجربیات یادگیری، روش های یاددهی- یادگیری ، نقش معلم، ارزشیابی، نتایج برنامه حول مقوله محوری الگو یعنی توسعه فرهنگ عمومی، شکل گرفت و با استفاده از فن دلفی و بارش ذهنی توسط صاحب نظران حوزه برنامه درسی مورد اعتبار سنجی قرار گرفت.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Designing a paradigm model for the development of public culture in the primary school curriculum with a data-based approach
The main purpose of the current research is to design a paradigmatic model for the development of public culture in the primary school curriculum with a data-based approach. The participants of the research included specialists and experts in the field of curriculum studies and social sciences, whose selection was done in a targeted manner; by snowball type. The research data were collected through studying the theoretical scope of the research and interviewing experts. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 experts and the researcher reached theoretical saturation in the data. The obtained data was analyzed by Strauss-Corbin analysis method. After the open, central and selective coding stage, the aforementioned pattern was paradigmatically divided into 5 dimensions: causal conditions, background conditions, strategies, intervening conditions, consequences; and including 17 components of necessity and needs, goals and objectives of the program, ideology governing the society, basics of curriculum planning, program approach, learning materials and resources, space (place), time, organizational factors, parents' participation, implicit learning (informal program - hidden lesson program), content, learning experiences, teaching-learning methods, teacher's role, evaluation. The results of the program were formed around the core category of the model, i.e. the development of public culture; and were validated by experts in the field of curriculum using the Delphi technique and brainstorming.
Public culture as one of the branches of culture and of course its most important branch is the culture that is common to all members of the society. Public culture is one of the main building blocks of culture and it can be considered as a set of cultural elements that are needed by all the people of a society (Saeedi Kia et al, 2016). The impact of public culture is pervasive because all members of the society need it, and it has an impact on the fate of a nation, and requires macro-cultural policies. Based on this, it is possible to identify the damages of public culture and plan to fix them using the facts.
The government, governmental organizations, and councils in charge of public culture are responsible for guiding, directing and politicizing the field of public culture, and they must make the necessary plans to reform and promote public culture. Meanwhile, as the first official institution that is responsible for education in the society, education should take an important step by culture training, stabilization of cultural components, and a special look at the desired public culture of the society through using a suitable model for the development of public culture in the students' curriculum.
Therefore, the researcher asked the main question: what is the design of the paradigm model of the development of public culture in the curriculum of the elementary school with a data-based approach?
The public culture is a powerful network and effective amalgamation of knowledge, tendencies and general attitudes of the society, while ambiguous and intangible, whose existence and presence is felt in the society, and makes us subordinate with its power in all dimensions of life. Therefore, the awareness of the public culture in the society and the factors influencing it is very important among the people's policy makers and curriculum planners who are in charge of transferring cultural concepts to the content of the curriculum. Curriculum ethnology means studying the impact of school or university culture on the curriculum in order to use deep analysis to show what actually happens in the situation of cultural curriculum implementation and what patterns influence cultural development. (Ayati & Khosh Daman, 2012).
Yarn Tecy (2022) has stated in an article titled "Culture change managers of urban public schools" with a phenomenological study on the effective practices of transformational leaders that leadership in a culture of change, which means creating a culture, is not just changing a structure. He sought to understand the characteristics of a cultural change manager in culture building in a city government school environment and the effective leadership of managers, and he came to the conclusion that a cultural change manager emphasizes the component of relationships as a main component and creates cohesion through collaborative conversations.
Luzmore et al, (2021) have conducted a study titled "Self-interest and altruism and how ethical imperatives in culture are navigated in a high-stakes culture by school leaders" and the experience of educational leadership in UK public schools with an outline of the history of public education and the evaluation of the performance of education as a part of competitive economic-political change has been investigated, and came to the conclusion that school managers in England promote a culture of responsibility and independence and have the ability to regulate and shape their organizational culture and have an influential position in their schools; but the embedded marketing approach to education in England has led to practices that are ethically troubling, and high levels of exclusion for students from vulnerable groups and non-inclusive practices for students with special educational needs should be addressed.
The governing approach of this research is qualitative, which was conducted using the paradigm data-based theory research method. The theoretical scope of the research, the study of upstream documents, and also semi-structured interviews has been used for collecting information and data. The participants in the interview were specialists and experts in the field of curriculum studies and social sciences, some of whom were selected using targeted sampling, and the researcher reached theoretical saturation by conducting interviews with 12 experts.
To analyze the collected data, according to the goals and questions of the research, the Strauss and Corbin coding method was used; and the information obtained from the interviews with the target people were analyzed, using the content analysis technique in the data-based theory in three stages of open coding, central, and selective, and were formed according to 5 dimensions of causal conditions, background conditions, strategies, intervening conditions, and consequences; and including 17 components of necessity and needs, goals and objectives of the program, ideology governing the society, basics of curriculum planning, program approach, learning materials and resources, space (place), time, organizational factors, parents' participation, implicit learning (informal program - hidden curriculum), content, learning experiences, teaching-learning methods, teacher's role, evaluation. Program results was formed based on the core category of the model, i.e. public culture development, and validated by experts in the field of curriculum using the Delphi technique and brainstorming.
The current research was conducted with the aim of designing a paradigm model for the development of public culture in the primary school curriculum with a data-based approach. The results of this study are in line with the results of Hanteroplus et al, (2021), Araghiye (2021), Khanfer (2021), Shahidi et al, (2012), and Naseri & Armand (2021). The development of public culture is an abstract concept with many inclusions at different levels of the educational system, and includes the expectation of the convergence of all elements; from the Supreme Council of Education as the highest decision-making level to the classroom level even outside the school to achieve the goals of the elementary course curriculum. Designing, compiling, implementing and evaluating are the four basic stages of the curriculum planning system. Each of them has a specific pattern or patterns. The design pattern mainly has a value and general aspect, and the curriculum elements are determined and designed according to the value orientation. The design of curriculum elements is based on value analysis and philosophical implications; in the design of the public culture development model in the primary school curriculum, all the components determined in the form of curriculum model elements are used for the development of public culture and in accordance with the nature of the educational system.
The most important of these suggestions are:
- Revision of the prepared template every five years in order to update it
- Developing a program and creating cultural resources based on virtual training and crisis conditions
- Suggesting the development of a program to the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution and Education, according to the upstream documents and the combined approaches of education to face cultural harms in the era of Corona.
- Conducting research in the form of a national model for the development of public culture by experienced professors.
- The codes extracted in this study can be a good guide for deeper and more specialized studies about the partial dimensions of this curriculum.