هدف از پژوهش حاضر، طراحی الگوی کیفی تکیه گاه سازی آموزشی برای دانش آموزان مقطع متوسطه میباشد. روش تحقیق کیفی و از حیث هدف از نوع تحقیقات کاربردی است. جامعه آماری شامل خبرگان و متخصصان حوزه یادگیری - یاددهی، روشهای تدریس و تکیهگاه سازی و اسناد مکتوب مرتبط با موضوع میباشد و با روش نمونه گیری گلوله برفی برای خبرگان و نمونه گیری هدفمند برای اسناد، 13 خبره و 18 سند (متن) مناسب با اهداف تحقیق، تعیین شد. برای تحلیل داده ها، روش گرندد تئوری با کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی استفاده شد. نتایج حاکی از آن بوده که الگوی کیفی تکیه گاه سازی آموزشی برای دانش آموزان مقطع متوسطه شامل 10 بعد (توسعه منابع انسانی و غیرانسانی، بهسازی و توسعه سیستم آموزشی، شیوه های یاددهی – یادگیری، فرهنگ سازی و ارتباطات، قوانین و رفتارهای حمایتی، نظارت بر عملکرد، راهبردهای مبتنی بر شناخت و فراشناخت، راهبردهای مبتنی بر انگیزش، پیشرفت ذهنی و پیشرفت علمی)، 21 مؤلفه (توسعه منابع انسانی، توانمندسازی دانش آموزان، توسعه امکانات سخت افزاری و نرم افزاری، تدریس مشارکتی و تعاملی، ساده سازی تکلیف، یادگیری مجازی، یاددهی مبتنی بر تئوریهای علمی، فرهنگ سازی بین والدین و معلمان، ارتباطات مؤثر، رفتارهای حمایتی، راهبردها و دستورالعملهای درون و برون سازمانی، راهبردهای فراشناختی، راهبردهای شناختی، راهبردهای شناختی و فراشناختی، راهبردهای انگیزشی، بهزیستی روانی، به فعلیت رسیدن استعدادهای بالقوه، بهبود روند یادگیری و پیشرفت تحصیلی) و 134 شاخص است که در قالب شرایط علی، زمینه ای، مداخلهای، راهبردها و پیامد در الگوی پارادایمی پژوهش جای گرفتند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Designing a qualitative model of educational support for high school students
The purpose of this research is to design a qualitative model of educational support for secondary school students. The research method is qualitative, and applicable in terms of its purpose. The statistical population includes experts and specialists in the field of learning-teaching, teaching and support methods, and written documents related to the subject; and 13 experts and 18 documents (text) was determined to be suitable for the research objectives using the snowball sampling method for experts and targeted sampling for documents. For data analysis, the ground theory method with open, central and selective coding was used. The results indicated that the qualitative model of educational support for secondary school students includes 10 dimensions (development of human and non-human resources, improvement and development of the educational system, teaching-learning methods, culture and communication, supportive rules and behaviors, performance monitoring, strategies based on cognition and metacognition, strategies based on motivation, mental progress, and scientific progress), 21 components (development of human resources, empowerment of students, development of hardware and software facilities, collaborative and interactive teaching, simplification homework, virtual learning, teaching based on scientific theories, culture building between parents and teachers, effective communication, supportive behaviors, internal and external strategies and instructions, metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, cognitive and metacognitive strategies, motivational strategies, psychological well-being, the actualization of potential talents, improvement of the learning process and academic progress) and 134 indicators that were included in the paradigm model of research in the form of causal, contextual, interventional, strategies and consequences.
Creating a support is a challenging educational task. Once the support is designed, the teacher begins to build knowledge by asking detailed questions and necessary skills and explanations with appropriate examples and thoughtful planning of students' activities. Skills including higher level questions are questions that elicit feedback skills that the teacher uses to build support. Educational support can direct learners' attention to basic concepts, clarify ambiguous concepts and words for the learner, and facilitate the acquisition of expressive knowledge of a field through technical support, cognitive and metacognitive support. )Arefi et al. 2020(.
Support building is effective in achieving goals such as involving the learner in learning activities at high levels, such as thinking about goals, planning, choosing appropriate guides, obtaining multiple perspectives on the subject, and applying previous knowledge in new situations. Therefore, in the classroom, the teacher can support the processes and activities necessary to go through the conversation processes; in this way, in the classroom, by providing challenging assignments to the students before, during, and after the education, as well as creating groupings in the class and Organizing students' activities in the direction of self-learning and self-evaluation will help to achieve optimal learning (Zabihi Hesari et al, 2022).
According to the mentioned materials, the main problem of the research is: how to design a qualitative model of educational support for secondary school students?
Education is the most effective tool available to society to challenge the future. Progress increasingly depends on the capacities of research, innovation and adaptability of new generations. Without education, it is impossible for young people to participate in cultural and social economic life. It is obvious that education will not solve all the problems that humanity is facing today, but in order to connect members of society, it is necessary to create new relationships and respond to environmental needs. School education or formal education is not everything. Education also emphasizes the role of family and community and includes informal and semi-formal aspects as well (Grecu and Denes, 2017).
Scaffolding (supporting) can be defined as the process of guiding the learner to transition from what he knows now to what he is going to learn. In support, at first the teacher or another person who helps the learner takes a major share of the responsibility, but gradually as the learning progresses, the responsibility is handed over to the learner (Seyf, 2014).
Akati et al, (2022) investigated the enhancement of writing ability through supporting techniques: a mixed study. The results showed that motivation-based support is the most effective technique in increasing the writing ability of English language learners. The results of the interview also showed that the support techniques consistently improve the students' writing skills.
Heo (2022) investigated teacher support and language learning in an immersion classroom for students with a supported background in an elementary classroom. Findings indicated that the teacher provided the supported students with a variety of verbal, procedural, and instructional scaffolds to enhance their language comprehension and production, such as performing vowel shapes through body movements, while remaining aligned with their social-emotional learning. The final results showed that teachers who serve young students in language classes should provide scaffolding in different ways and pay attention to students' social-emotional behavior and learning with non-judgmental attitudes and constructive approaches.
The present study was conducted qualitatively in terms of data collection and was practical in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the research includes organizational and academic experts, high and middle managers of the education system, faculty members in the field of educational sciences - educational management in higher education centers and experts in the field of learning - teaching and teaching methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 experts, and 18 documents (texts) were examined with the purposeful method for documents\ using the snowball sampling method until theoretical saturation was reached.
Discussion and Results
In order to analyze the data, the ground theory method with open, central and selective coding was used and the results showed that the qualitative model of educational support for high school students includes 10 dimensions (development of human and non-human resources, improvement and development of educational system, teaching-learning methods, culture building and communication, supportive rules and behaviors, performance monitoring, strategies based on cognition and metacognition, strategies based on motivation, mental progress, and scientific progress), 21 components (development of human resources, Empowering students, developing hardware and software facilities, collaborative and interactive teaching, simplifying assignments, virtual learning, teaching based on scientific theories, culture building between parents and teachers, effective communication, supportive behaviors, strategies and instructions within and extra-organizational, metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, cognitive and metacognitive strategies, motivational strategies, psychological well-being, actualization of potential talents, improvement of learning process, and academic progress) and 134 indicators which were placed in the research paradigm model in the form of causal, contextual, and interventional conditions., strategies and consequences.
The current research was conducted with the aim of designing a qualitative model of educational support for secondary school students. The results of this research have been consistent with the results of Ekati et al, (2022), Mohammadlou & Mohammadlou (2022), Heo (2022), Yang (2022), Sun et al, (2021), Maksic S, Josic (2021), and Khatib & Kardost (2021). Ekati et al, (2022) showed that increasing writing ability through support techniques, metacognitive, motivational and technology-based support techniques continuously improves the writing skills of language learners. In the current research, the components of "empowerment of students" and "development of hardware and software facilities" explain the components of "causal conditions"; and the components of "metacognitive strategies" and "motivational strategies" explains the component of "strategies" in the paradigm model of the present research.
According to the results of the research, it is suggested that the teacher should be open to criticism for the faults of the learner and should show self-respect. Teachers' understanding of learning and growth mechanisms should be at a high level. Assigning students to prepare different artifacts and use them is to improve their abilities. Clarifying the learner's thinking and solving the learner's mental ambiguities will put him on the right path. School management should take steps to promote and develop the attractiveness of new technologies available. Teachers should use strategies with theoretical and practical support continuously and systematically.