مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی نقش واسطهای روحیه تدریسگری معلمان در رابطه بین مهارتهای سرپرستی مدیران با کیفیت تدریس معلمان انجام شد. روش این مطالعه توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کلیه 512 نفر از مدیران و معلمان شهرستان هوراند در سال تحصیلی 1401-1400 بودند که از این تعداد 124 نفر به روش نمونهگیری در دسترس به عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب شدند. جهت گردآوری دادهها از پرسشنامههای استاندارد کیفیت تدریس سراج (2002) با ضریب پایایی (93/0)، پرسشنامه روحیه معلمان میرکمالی (1377) با ضریب پایایی (94/0) و پرسشنامه مهارتهای مدیریتی مدیران مدل کاتز (1974) با ضریب پایایی (97/0) استفاده شد که روایی آنها توسط صاحبنظران دانشگاهی و پایایی آنها نیز از طریق آزمون ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. به منظور تحلیل دادهها از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی با کمک نرمافزار Spss26 و Amos24 استفاده شد. یافتههای کمّی حاصل از آزمون فرضیههای پژوهش نشان داد که رابطه معناداری بین مهارتهای سرپرستی مدیران و مولفههای آن با کیفیت تدریس معلمان (004/0p=) و روحیه تدریسگری معلمان (001/0p=) وجود دارد. همچنین مهارتهای سرپرستی و روحیه تدریسگری توانسته است 29% از واریانس کیفیت تدریس و متغیر مهارتهای سرپرستی مدیران 33% از روحیه تدریسگری را تبیین نمایند. در نهایت نقش واسطهای روحیه تدریسگری معلمان در رابطه بین مهارتهای سرپرستی مدیران با کیفیت تدریس معلمان مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. با توجه به یافتهها میتوان گفت مدیران به همراه دانش و مهارتهای آنان نقش بسزایی در کیفیت تدریس و روحیه تدریسگری معلمان دارد که باید به آنها توجه ویژهای داشت.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The mediating role of teachers' teaching spirit in the relationship between managers' supervision skills and teachers' teaching quality (Case study: managers and teachers of Hurand city)
The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the mediating role of teachers' teaching spirit in the relationship between principals' supervision skills and teachers' teaching quality. The method of this study is a descriptive correlative type. The statistical population of the research included all 512 managers and teachers of Horand city in the academic year 2021-2022, of which 124 people were selected as the sample size using available sampling method. The standard questionnaires of Siraj's teaching quality (2002) with a reliability coefficient of (0.93), the Mirkamali teachers' morale questionnaire (2008) with a reliability coefficient of (0.94), and the Katz model managers' management skills questionnaire (1974) with a reliability coefficient of 0.97) were used in order to collect data, whose validity was confirmed by academic experts and their reliability was also confirmed through Cronbach's alpha coefficient test. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics were used with the help of Spss26 and Amos24 software. Quantitative findings from the test of research hypotheses showed that there is a significant relationship between the supervision skills of managers and their components with the quality of teachers' teaching (p=0.004) and the teachers' teaching spirit (p=0.001). Also, supervision skills and teaching spirit 29% of the variance of teaching quality, and the variable of principals' supervision skills have been able to explain 33% of teaching spirit. Finally, the mediating role of teachers' teaching spirit in the relationship between principals' supervision skills and teachers' teaching quality was confirmed. According to the findings, it can be said that managers, along with their knowledge and skills, play a significant role in the quality of teaching and the teaching spirit of teachers, which should be given special attention.
One of the main concerns of the educational system is intellectual growth and maturity, the success and academic progress of students, and this organization is efficient and successful when the science teachers have a good academic and social status (Muhonen, et al, 2018). Therefore, one of the important things in order to achieve educational goals and justice is to pay attention to the quality of teaching and instructing of teachers (Yazdani, et al, 2020). Quality in the field of teaching is defined as a degree of conformity and compatibility of each of the main indicators and characteristics of teaching quality with the standards and desirable and superior characteristics of that organization (Babagoli, Belaghat, 2016). Teaching quality is one of the important factors and characteristics of teachers; because in addition to affecting the way of teaching, learning and retrieving information of students, it has influenced the self-awareness, employment and development of students' analytical thinking (Idris & Mbudai, 2017).
One of the variables that can be related to the teaching quality of teachers is the supervision skills of principals (U-Sayee & Adomako, 2021). The effectiveness and efficiency of managers requires management skills that can be used in different situations and positions to achieve organizational progress and success (mentee, et al, 2019). If the educational managers of a society have sufficient knowledge and skills, without a doubt the educational system will have higher effectiveness, quality and credibility (Subakzahi & Bavar, 2021).
Morale refers to the sense of confidence, trust, sympathy and friendship that exists between teachers. Having the spirit of teaching is one of the dimensions of teachers' competence (Seraji, et al, 2018). Teachers' motivation has a significant impact on the emergence of new initiatives, the tendency to promote positive changes in student learning, and students' academic motivation (Jurs, et al, 2022).
According to the mentioned materials, the main problem of the research is that what effect does the supervision skills of the principals have on the quality of teachers' teaching with the mediating role of teachers' teaching spirit?
The skills of managers are the ability of managers to move the components of a group or complex to adapted move all components toward determined and specific goals (Ghorbanzadeh, 2017). Leaders with high management skills bring qualitative schools and create effective schools. In this way, effective schools can provide meaningful learning experiences related to students' needs and society's demands (Mutohar, Trisnantari, 2020).
The quality of teaching is the process that brings the most formative and essential learning experience to students. These experiences may include dimensions such as improving perception and the ability to use the ideas presented in the lessons, change in attitude, passion for order and the place where the scientific effort takes place, mental growth, improvement in specific abilities such as critical writing and reading, oral communication, analysis, synthesis and generalization (Karimi, Esmaeilishad, 2022).
Work spirit refers to the way of thinking, the way individuals and groups of employees perceive their workplace, and the effort, cooperation, and desire that employees show to achieve the organization's goals (Danaeefard et al., 2020). Teachers are the most important members of the educational system in the teaching-learning process, so it seems necessary to reduce obstacles and find motivational solutions to increase work efficiency.
Susanti et al. (2020) showed that academic supervision conducted by managers could help teachers improve the quality of teaching in the classroom. Therefore, if the performance of teachers' supervision by managers is optimal, high-quality learning will be achieved (Susanti et al., 2020).
Torkiantabar and Hoseini (2017) showed that there is a significant relationship between the leadership style of managers and its components (democratic, authoritarian, and collational leadership style) with the quality of teaching (Torkiantabar, Hoseini, 2018).
The research method is descriptive-correlative type. The statistical population included 512 managers and teachers of Hurand city (East Azerbaijan province) in the academic year of 2021-2022. Among the statistical population, 124 people (63 women and 61 men) were selected as a sample size using the convenience sampling method. The standard questionnaires of Siraj's teaching quality (2002), the Mirkamali teachers' morale questionnaire (2008), and the Katz model managers' management skills questionnaire (1974) were used in order to collect data. The criteria for entering the participants in the current research were: 1. to answer the questionnaire, managers, and teachers who had teaching and management experience were selected, respectively; 2. Also, teachers and managers of all educational levels in Hurand city were eligible to participate in the exam. The exclusion criteria were: 1. Due to the importance of the research, the participants who did not have the motivation and desire to fill out the questionnaire were excluded from the statistical sample.
In order to collect data, Seraj's teaching quality questionnaire (2002), Mirkamali's teachers’ spirit questionnaire (1998), and the Katz model managers' management skills questionnaire (1974) were used.
In order to examine the research hypothesis and analyze the data, the structural equation model was used using Spss26 and Amos24 software. The findings show a significant relationship between the overall scores of the teachers' spirit (r=0.40) and managers' supervision skills (r=0.44) and its subscales (technical skills: r=0.41, human skills: r=0.39 and perceptual skill: r=0.43) with the overall score of teaching quality and its sub-scales (lesson plan, teaching implementation, evaluation, and interpersonal relations) (P<0.01). It means that, by increasing the management skills of managers and promoting the teachers' spirit, the teaching quality will improve. There is a positive and significant relationship between teaching spirit (r=0.29) and management skill (r=0.32) and its subscales (technical skills: r=0.33, human skills: r=0.32) at the level of (P<0.01). But the perceptive skill r+0.24) has a weak positive significant relationship with the lesson design. There is a medium positive and significant relationship between teaching spirit (r=0.35) and management skills (r=0.40) and its subscales (technical skills: r=0.38, human skills: r=0.34, perceptive skills: (r=0.39); and teaching performance at the level of (p<0.01). There is a medium positive and significant relationship between teaching spirit (r=0.41) and management skills (r=0.42) and its subscales (technical skills: r=0.40, human skills: r=0.35, perceptive skills: r=0.42); and teaching evaluation at the level of (p<0.01). Also, There is a medium positive and significant relationship between teaching spirit (r=0.37) and management skills (r=0.43) and its subscales (technical skills: r=0.35, human skills: r=0.39, perceptive skills: (r=0.45); and intra-personal relationship at the level of (p<0.01). Managers' supervisory skills directly affect teachers' teaching quality at a significant level of 0.32 (P= 0.004). Managers' supervisory skills directly affect teachers’ spirit at 0.58 at a significant level of 0.001. Also, the spirit of teaching directly affects the quality of teaching at 0.29 at a significant level of 0.01. In general, it can be said that supervision skills and teaching spirit have explained 29% of the variance in teaching quality. Also, teaching skills have been able to explain 33% of teaching spirit. Finally, the mediating role of teachers' teaching spirit in the relationship between managers' supervision skills and teachers' teaching quality was confirmed. This means that by increasing managers' supervision skills and improving teachers’ spirit, the quality of teaching is improved.
The present study aimed to study the relationship between the supervision skills of managers and the quality of teachers' teaching through the mediating role of teaching spirit. The findings of this study are consistent with the findings of Esmaili and Azizi Nejad (2021), Tan et al. (2020), Zahed babolan et al. (2021), and Abdoli (2002). In explaining the findings, it can be said that managers are known as essential players in improving teaching and learning conditions in schools. By increasing their management skills, managers can take various measures to improve the motivation of the industrious teachers such as creating enough opportunities and chances for the growth and development of teachers, creating open communication channels throughout the organization, promoting teachers according to their competencies, clarifying organizational missions and goals, and paying attention to and appreciating hardworking teachers to increase teachers' motivation (Ashrafi, Zeinabadi, 2019). Increasing the spirit not only makes teaching more enjoyable for teachers but also makes learning more enjoyable for students. Apparently, when the leadership is strong and influential, teachers become more aware of their goals and more committed to them. There is harmony between individual and organizational goals, which is a positive factor in improving their performance and the emergence of their internal and desirable capabilities to increase work quality (Hamidi & Saādati, 2015).
According to the findings, it is suggested that: 1) the education officials hold in-service training courses to provide managerial supervision skills for managers and employees. The criteria for passing this course, in addition to receiving a passing grade in the first stage, is success in the second stage of the exam, i.e., oral exam and questions and answers related to the first stage exam (to ensure the acquisition and learning of management skills). 2) According to the researcher, in addition to the effectiveness of educational workshops in increasing managerial skills; personality factors, mood, excitement, and people's experience play a fundamental role in better management and, as a result, the organization's success. Based on this, it is suggested that education officials choose people to manage organizations and schools who, in addition to adequately learning management skills in training courses, have a thoughtful, authoritarian, sympathetic personality and temperament (they have a managerial personality). 3) Also, in order to increase the quality of teachers' teaching, in addition to holding educational workshops based on introducing the characteristics of effective teaching, the mental conflicts of teachers should be reduced so that their mental preoccupation in the classroom is only the success and learning of students and the creation of effective teaching to better educate students.