هدف تحقیق حاضر، تدوین الگوی رضایت شغلی بر اساس توانمندسازی شغلی و شایستگی حرفهای است. روش تحقیق به لحاظ ماهیت، توصیفی-همبستگی و از حیث هدف کاربردی بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق را معلمان مدارس متوسطه شهر رشت به تعداد 837 نفر تشکیل دادند. تعداد 263 نفر به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شدند. جهت گردآوری دادهها از پرسشنامههای رضایت شغلی مینه سوتا، شایستگی حرفهای ملایی نژاد (1391) و توانمندسازی شغلی اسپریتزر (1995) استفاده گردید که روایی آنها توسط صاحبنظران دانشگاهی و پایایی آنها نیز از طریق آزمون ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. به منظور تحلیل دادهها از تکنیک معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری Lisrel و نیز نرم افزار آماری Spss استفاده شد. یافتههای تحقیق نشان داد میان شایستگی حرفهای معلمان با توانمندسازی و رضایت شغلی آنها رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. میان توانمندسازی شغلی معلمان با رضایت شغلی آنها رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. توانمندسازی شغلی در رابطه میان شایستگی حرفهای معلمان با رضایت شغلی آنها نقش میانجی دارد. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از این امر است که مؤلفه شایستگی شناختی بیشترین قدرت رابطه را با توانمندسازی و رضایت شغلی داشته است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Develop a job satisfaction model based on job empowerment and professional competence
The purpose of this study is to develop a job satisfaction model based on job empowerment and professional competence. The research method was descriptive-correlative in nature, and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consisted of 837 high school teachers in Rasht. 263 people were selected as a statistical sample by simple random sampling. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction, Job Competence Questionnaire of Mollainejad (2012), and Job Empowerment Questionnaire of Spritzer (1995) were used to collect data. Their validity was confirmed by academic experts, and their reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient test. In order to analyze the data, the structural equation technique was used with Lisrel statistical software and SPSS statistical software. The findings showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between teachers' professional competence with their empowerment and job satisfaction. Teachers' job empowerment has a positive and significant relationship with their job satisfaction. Job empowerment has a mediating role in the relationship between teachers' professional competence and their job satisfaction. The research results indicate that the cognitive competency component has the greatest power in relation to empowerment and job satisfaction.
Education has long played a key role in the survival of human societies; therefore, teachers as human resources and implementers of educational programs are considered as its basic element, and their performance has a major impact on the success of this institution (Kamali et al, 2020). One of the main tasks of educational systems in any country is to transfer the cultural heritage of the community, cultivate the talents of the graduates and prepare them for active participation in the community. Therefore, it is necessary to train people in order to take charge of various affairs. The academic success and performance of the graduates of any society shows the success of the educational system in the field of goal setting and attention to meeting individual needs. Academic performance is progress in the practice of education, and the components and stages that cause this progress are also considered (Vafaei, 2019). The first step towards achieving a successful teaching staff is to understand the factors that affect the quality of their activities (Hanna et al, 2017). One of these factors is teachers' job satisfaction; because there is a direct relationship between job satisfaction of individuals and their performance, and those who are satisfied, do their job better (Tavakoli et al, 2015). Therefore, it is necessary for the educational system to pay more attention to the issue of job satisfaction of teachers. Being a teacher, among different occupations of a society, is one of the most important; and teachers, because of their direct educational and disciplinary effects on the family's offsprings, play an irreplaceable role in the future generations of any society (Behjat et al, 2016; From Mohammadi, 2007). Teacher empowerment also affects their job satisfaction. Kanungo (1988) defines empowerment as a process to strengthen the sense of self-efficacy among members of the organization. Scientists such as Thomas & Velthouse (1990) believe that competence has a multifaceted nature and its nature cannot be achieved by a single concept. In addition, teachers have a lot of talent, motivation and latent force, and the emergence of these potential forces is achieved according to the teacher empowerment strategy, and ultimately leads to the growth and promotion of schools (Molla Zadeh, 2018).
According to the above, the main issue of the research is whether there is a significant relationship between professional competence and job satisfaction, considering the mediating role of job empowerment of high school teachers in Rasht in the academic year 2021-2022.
Job satisfaction as a complicated and multidimensional concept is one of the important factors of job success and increasing efficiency. Job satisfaction due to predicting organizational behaviors plays an important role in the study and management of human behaviors. Job satisfaction increases productivity, organizational commitment, physical and mental health and work ethic (Dodange et al, 2016).
Empowerment allows people to share their knowledge, increase their role in promoting creativity in the workplace, and look for creative ways to correct mistakes and repeat work processes. Teacher empowerment has a different scope from the empowerment of other participants in the educational environment or staff working outside the education sector, and is defined according to their ability to participate in decision-making processes related to inclusive school learning and teaching (Asivand, 2018).
Proficiency, semantically, usually refers to being appropriate for the purpose, competency, sufficient, or qualificated in the true sense, acceptable, and rejected, sufficiently prepared to enter a particular profession, and Directly related to specialized certificate or approvement in that profession. The International Association of Standards of Internship, Performance and Training considers competency to be an integrated set of skills, knowledge and attitudes that enables an individual to effectively perform the activities of a particular profession or to live up to the expected standards of that profession (Karimi, 2013).
Sepahbod & Montazeri Najafabadi (2021), conducted a study entitled "The effect of sense of competence on the path of job satisfaction with the mediating role of job burnout and relative deprivation (Case study: selected government offices in Najafabad)." The results showed that the sense of competence higher than the organizational position in employees leads to a decrease in job satisfaction in the organization.
Orgambídez & Almeida (2020), conducted a study entitled "Study of the relationship between structural empowerment and job satisfaction through the mediating effect of role stress and professional competence: a cross-sectional questionnaire study". The results showed that there is a significant relationship between structural empowerment, role stress and professional competence with job satisfaction.
The research method is descriptive-correlative in nature, and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consisted of 837 high school teachers in Rasht. 263 people were selected based on Krejcie and Morgan table and simple random sampling method as the sample size. To collect data related to Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and Professional Competence Variable, Mollaei Nezhad Questionnaire (2012) and Job Competence Variable were used by Spreitzer (1995).
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypothesis and analyze the data, the structural equation technique was used with Lisrel statistical software and Spss statistical software. The results showed that the mean root index of approximate squares equal to (0.018) of the model has a good fit. Other goodness-of-fit indicators have been in the range of acceptance, and the results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between professional competence and teachers 'job empowerment. There is a positive and significant relationship between job empowerment and teachers' job satisfaction; and between professional competence and job satisfaction; and between professional competence and job satisfaction with the mediating role of job empowerment.
The present study was conducted to investigate the development of job satisfaction model based on job empowerment and professional competence. The findings of this hypothesis are consistent with the results of the findings of Jiraro et al, (2014); Zendedel (2016); Abdollahi et al, (2014); Orgambídez & Almeida (2020); and Hamidi Zadeh & Bramon (2011); Teachers learn the skills needed to teach and try to develop their abilities within their scope of work. They pursue their career outcomes in line with the higher goals of the education system (zarebin, 2020). Their job responsibilities are very clear and it is important for them to judge how students perform in the education system (Rajabpour et al, 2019). Teachers with high job ability manage their cognitive and behavioral characteristics based on individual controls, and how well they function in the education system is very important to them (Bisung & Dickin, 2019). Teachers who are well-qualified in the teaching process will have sufficient skills in using teaching methods appropriate to the subject matter. Such people have up-to-date and desirable information on how to produce and organize thematic knowledge (Khoshravian, 2016). They are constantly trying to be useful in challenging themselves and their colleagues and examining their job abilities. Teachers' job performance is a topic that is constantly analyzed by school principals (Dibai Saber, 2016). Such people have the ability to analyze content and critique and its skills. They can develop this ability in teachers, and this power of content analysis can be valuable in attracting teachers to professional activities (Blömeke & Kaiser, 2020).
The development of teachers' professional competencies should be considered as a process that starts from the pre-service period and covers the entire teaching profession. This proposal should be systematically designed, supported, budgeted for, and considered for teacher promotion. Teachers should have access to the necessary information about how to teach properly as well as school work policies. They need to be more clarified and aware of the goals of the education departments, which are clearly defined, and to know what an important role their work plays in achieving the goals of the schools and the education system. On the other hand, the teachers, by providing opportunities for selection, making decision and internal control and the use of challenging, diverse and enjoyable assignments with emphasis on different dimensions of academic participation (behavioral, emotional, and cognitive factors) play an important role in creating useful understanding and increasing interest; and students can have motivation and educational participation. Accordingly, it is suggested that teachers in the educational process pay attention to the dimensions of students' academic participation in their work priority. Finally, the formation of training workshops for teachers in relation to familiarity with solutions makes them have more understanding of their competencies.