پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر انگیزش شغلی کارمندان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کاشمر براساس نظریه عوامل بهداشتی _انگیزشی هرزبرگ انجام شده است. در این پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی تعداد 90 نفر از 100 نفرکارمندان رسمی و قراردادی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کاشمر در سال تحصیلی 99-1398 به روش تمام شماری در مطالعه شرکت کردند. جهت بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر انگیزه شغلی کارمندان از پرسشنامهای پژوهشگر ساخته بر اساس تئوری هرزبرگ و پس از تائید روایی و پایایی آن استفاده شده است، دادههای پژوهش با استفاده از نرم افزار spss-21 به صورت توزیع فراوانی و تحلیلهای واریانس و همبستگی پیرسون مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که مهمترین عوامل مؤثر بر انگیزه شغلی کارمندان در حیطه عوامل بهداشتی "امنیت و ثبات شغلی" و "میزان حقوق و دستمزد" و در حیطه عوامل انگیزشی " ماهیت کار" و " رشد و پیشرفت" بوده است و تأثیر عوامل بهداشتی در ایجاد انگیزه شغلی بیشتر از عوامل انگیزشی است. بنابراین برای جلوگیری از عدم رضایت کارمندان دانشگاه و ایجاد انگیزه در آنان، توجه به عوامل بهداشتی و انگیزشی با اولویت عوامل بهداشتی، ضروری به نظر میرسد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the factors affecting the job motivation of the employees of the Islamic Azad University of Kashmar branch based on Herzberg's theory of health-motivational factors
The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the factors affecting the job motivation of employees of the Islamic Azad University of Kashmar branch based on Herzberg's theory of health -motivational factors. In this descriptive and analytical research, 90 people out of 100 official and contract employees of Islamic Azad University, Kashmar branch participated in the academic year 2018-2019. In order to investigate the factors affecting the job motivation of employees, a researcher-made questionnaire based on Herzberg's theory was used, and after confirming its validity and reliability, the research data was obtained using spss-21 software in the form of frequency distribution and Pearson variance and correlation analysis. The results of the research showed that the most important factors affecting employees' job motivation were "job security and stability" and "level of salary" in the field of health factors, and "nature of work" and "growth and progress" in the field of motivational factors, and the effect of health factors in creating career motivation is more than motivational factors.
The perception, attitude and needs of people to work in every organization are different from each other. Therefore, the management of the organization must have a real, correct and logical understanding of the people of the organization in order to be able to use them to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization by creating appropriate motivation (Asefzadeh, 2018), as far as the human force does not have acceptable job motivation. Other activities of the organization will not have the necessary results and outcomes, providing the necessary motivation to do the work and paying attention to the motivational forces of employees is one of the most important and at the same time the most complicated tasks of organizations (Muslimi et al, 2017).
Providing career motivation in organizations has various benefits such as innovation, gaining customer satisfaction, competitive advantage, etc. (Atefi, 2017), it is important to know what factors affect the motivation, commitment and retention of employees in the organization (Suttikun et al. al, 2018), therefore, every organization should adopt the necessary policies and guidelines to improve employee motivation (Atefi, 2017). Lack of job motivation of employees, irresponsibility and lack of effective work is one of the most obvious work situations in Iran (Taleghani, Davoodi, 2017).
According to the mentioned materials, the main problem of the research is: what are the effective factors on the job motivation of the employees of the Islamic Azad University of Kashmar branch based on Herzberg's theory of health-motivational factors?
Different theories and methods have been presented to motivate employees. One of the important theories in this field, which also forms the structure of the current research, is Herzberg's motivational theory. The factors creating job-satisfaction were called motivational factors, and the factors whose supply do not necessarily lead to satisfaction, were called health factors by Herzberg. These two categories of factors are known as Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation (Lutans, 2021). Health factors are mainly related to the "job environment and context, not the job itself". These factors include: salary and other types of employee benefits, administrative policies and regulations governing the working environment, personal relationships with partners, supervisors and subordinates, job guarantee, working environment conditions, supervision and monitoring. Motivational factors are related to the essence and nature of the job (work content) and have a positive effect on morale, efficiency, and productivity. According to Herzberg, motivational factors are: recognition and appreciation, nature of work, career success, responsibility, growth and development (Iran Nejad, 2022).
Ganjali (2020) in a research in the field of designing a motivational model for non-academic employees of Imam Sadiq University (a.s.) concluded that the priorities of university managers to motivate employees in order of priority are: paying bonuses to employees based on merit, development Professionalism of employees and job guarantee, employee-favored behavior of officials and development of personal characteristics of officials.
The research of Mehrabian et al, (2020) at Gilan University of Medical Sciences showed that the level of motivation and satisfaction of employees in all investigated areas including management, supervision, communication, physical conditions of the workplace, psychological conditions and job guarantee, promotion opportunities And personal growth and salaries and benefits is at the average level, and only in the area of satisfaction with the work environment, has been at the optimal level.
The current research is applicable in terms of its purpose and descriptive-survey in terms of data collection method, which was conducted in order to investigate the factors affecting the job motivation of employees of the Islamic Azad University of Kashmar Branch based on Herzberg's theory. The statistical population in this research included all the employees who were employed by the university in official and contractual ways in the academic year 2018-2019, so the total sample size was 100 people, which made up all the members of the research community, and after the distribution of questionnaires 90 people completed them. In order to collect data related to research variables, a researcher's questionnaire was used, which includes three parts; 4 questions related to individual characteristics in the first part; 44 question to examine the opinions of employees regarding the factors affecting their job motivation in the second part; and at the end of the questionnaire, three open-ended questions are asked, two of which question the factors affecting the highest and lowest levels of job satisfaction, and the last question has been asked from research units.
Discussion and Results
In order to investigate the research hypothesis and data analysis, SPSS 21 software was used and the results showed that in examining the relationship between the factors affecting job motivation and individual characteristics of employees, the results of the Pearson correlation test showed that there was a positive and significant correlation (586/ r=0) between age and health factors (P-value=0.001) and also between age (r=0.857) and motivational factors (P-value=0.001). The results of the analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between the two sexes in terms of health (P-value=0.001) and motivational factors (P-value=0.007), which means that in men, the score of health and motivational factors is more than that in women. There is a significant difference in terms of health factors (P-value = 0.003) and content (P-value = 0.001), that is, the score of health and motivational factors in people with education higher than diploma is higher than the score of health and motivation factors for people with diploma education and lower. There is a significant difference between the type of employment in terms of motivational factors (P-value = 0.001), in official employees, the score of motivational factors is higher than that of contract workers (P-value = 0.001).
This research was conducted with the aim of investigating the factors affecting the job motivation of employees of the Islamic Azad University of Kashmar branch based on Herzberg's theory of health-motivational factors. The results of the research showed that the most important factors affecting the job motivation of employees in the field of health factors were "job security and stability" and "rate of salary" and in the field of motivational factors "nature of work" and "growth and development", and the effect of health factors in creating job motivation is more than that of motivational factors. The results of this research are in agreement with the findings of Ganjali (2020), Ghanbari et al, (2014), Pourmiri et al, (2011), Sotoudeh (2013), Dadashzadeh et al, (2013), Shigli et al, (2011). The results of examining the relationship between the factors affecting job motivation and the individual characteristics of employees showed that the scores of contextual and motivational factors in men were higher than in women, and in employees with higher than diploma education, it was higher than in employees with less than diploma education. Also, the score of motivational factors in official employees was higher than that in contract people. These findings are contrary to the results of the study of Asgarian (2012), which did not observe any significant difference between the motivational and health factors with the level of education, background and employment status in the statistical population, (Azizi, 2015). Pourmiri et al, (2011) have also reported in their studies that there is a significant difference between the job motivations of employees according to the type of employment; in expressing these differences, it can be said that the motivational factors of the work environment can be different in organizations and time for different reasons.
According to the findings of this study, it is suggested to increase the financial payments to the employees according to the needs of life, performance and education; and to formulate the necessary rules by the central organization of the university in order to ensure that the employees are covered by the labor law and have sufficient support in the legal authorities, and have job security. Employees should be dealt with based on their merits, records and performance, and political and ethnic relations should not play a role in promoting or demoting their administrative ranks, and people should benefit from sufficient opportunities for career and academic advancement.