هدف پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه افشای هیجانی، تحمل آشفتگی و سبک زندگی میان دانش آموزان مدارس پسرانه تیزهوش و عادی شهرستان تنکابن است. روش پژوهش به لحاظ ماهیت، توصیفی-همبستگی و از حیث هدف کاربردی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش را دانش آموزان پایههای های هفتم، هشتم و نهم مدارس پسرانه تیز هوش و عادی شهرستان تنکابن به تعداد 525 نفر تشکیل دادند. تعداد 120 نفر (60 نفر از دانش آموزان مدارس عادی و 60 نفر از دانش آموزان مدارس تیزهوش) به عنوان حجم نمونه و به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. جهت گردآوری دادهها از پرسشنامههای استاندارد خود افشایی هیجانی اسنل (2001)، تحمل پریشانی هیجانی سیمونز و گاهر (2005) و سبک زندگی لعلی و همکاران (2012) استفاده گردید که روایی آنها توسط صاحبنظران دانشگاهی مورد تأیید قرار گرفت و پایایی آنها نیز از طریق آزمون ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. به منظور تحلیل دادهها از آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک و چندمتغیره توسط نرم افزار Spss نسخه 22 استفاده شد. یافتههای پژوهش نشان داد سطح معناداری بدست آمده برای متغیرهای افشای هیجانی، تحمل آشفتگی و سبک زندگی کمتر از 05/0 میباشد. بنابرین تفاوت معناداری بین نمرات دو گروه دانش آموز تیزهوش و عادی وجود دارد. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از این امر است که میان افشای هیجانی، تحمل آشفتگی و سبک زندگی دانش آموزان مدارس پسرانه تیزهوش و عادی شهرستان تنکابن تفاوت معنی داری وجود دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparison of emotional disclosure, perturbation tolerance, and lifestyle of gifted and ordinary students
The aim of the present study was to compare emotional disclosure, tolerance of turmoil and lifestyle among students of gifted and normal boys' schools in Tonekabon city. The research method was descriptive-correlative in nature, and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consisted of 525 students of seventh, eighth and ninth grades of high-intelligence and normal boys' schools in Tonekabon city. A total of 120 people (60 ordinary school students and 60 gifted school students) were selected as the sample size by simple random sampling. To collect data, standard questionnaires of emotional self-disclosure of Snell (2001), emotional distress tolerance of Simmons and Chahar (2005), and lifestyle of Lali et al. (2012) were used, whose validity was confirmed by academic experts, and their reliability was also confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient test. In order to analyze the data, one-way and multivariate analysis of variance test was used by Spss software version 22. Findings showed that the level of significance for the variables of emotional disclosure, disturbance tolerance and lifestyle is less than 0.05. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the scores of the two groups of gifted and normal students. The results show that there is a significant difference between emotional disclosure, tolerance of turmoil, and lifestyle of gifted and normal boys' school students in Tonekabon.
Gifted and talented children are those who, in the opinion of competent and skilled people, are capable of excellent performance because of their outstanding talents. These children need different educational services and programs beyond what is usually provided through the normal school curriculum to realize their responsibility to themselves and society (Yaghoobi et al, 2019). Marland (1976) identifies gifted students as those who are considered to be competent because of their outstanding abilities. These students need special educational programs and services (which are not provided in regular schools). These students have significant progress or potential in (one or more contexts) general academic aptitude, special academic aptitude, creative thinking, leadership ability, visual and performing arts, and psychomotor ability (Ngieng et al, 2022). Education and life are two sides of the same coin, and an important factor that helps teachers create the conditions for an effective life is to pay attention to the lifestyle of the students. Accordingly, adapting or differentiating teaching methods with learners' lifestyles is of particular importance; because not every teaching necessarily leads to the right lifestyle. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of life (Nizamutdinova et al, 2019). Another variable that is addressed in the present study is the confusion tolerance of students. Turbulence tolerance refers to the ability to experience and tolerate negative psychological situations. Disorder may be the product of physical and cognitive processes, but its representation is an emotional state that is often characterized by a desire to act to escape the emotional experience (Simons & Gaher, 2005; Li et al, 2021). One of the strategies to reduce interpersonal problems in children and students is emotional disclosure. According to Kennedy et al. (1999), emotion expression has four main functions: regulating arousal, self-perception, improving coping skills, and improving interpersonal relationships. In the process of emotional disclosure, the individual expresses his or her deepest emotional experiences verbally or in writing to himself or herself or others (Adineh & Hasani, 2016). According to the above, the main issue of the research is whether there is a significant difference between emotional disclosure, tolerance of turmoil, and lifestyle of gifted and normal boys' school students in Tonekabon city.
Health requires the promotion of a healthy lifestyle. The lifestyle is importance mostly because it is effective on lifestyle and disease prevention. Lifestyle correction is essential to maintain and promote health. Promoting health and ensuring the health of individuals in society is one of the important pillars of community development (Araghian et al, 2020).
Turbulence tolerance is conceptualized as a sub-emotional concept and is considered as an attribute rather than an emotional state. Turbulence tolerance is how people respond to negative emotions, which includes additional information beyond the individual's awareness of the amount of negative emotions experienced (Andrés et al, 2021).
During emotional revelation, people are confronted with the deepest thoughts and feelings that come from their past. Emotional disclosure is a relatively new method that has been welcomed by researchers in recent decades. Emotional disclosure in writing form in various sources is referred to as the writing paradigm.
Namvar (2020) in a study examined the role of lifestyle and mental disorder in functional disability. He stated that the factors of responsibility for health, stress management, interpersonal support and mental disorder have a significant relationship with functional disability. In other words, a person who received a high score on the lifestyle scale has a lower score on the subscales of functional disability than other people.
Talebi et al (2020) also analyzed the effects of psychological well-being on disturbance tolerance in the study. The study population was the mothers of students with mental retardation in District 15 of Tehran. Their results showed that psychological well-being training increases disturbance tolerance and reduces mental confusion and depression.
The research method is descriptive-correlative in nature, and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consisted of 725 students of 7th, 8th and 9th grade of high-intelligence and normal schools boys in Tonekabon city. A total of 120 people (60 ordinary school students and 60 gifted school students) were selected as the sample size by simple random sampling. data related to research variables was collected through the emotional self-disclosure questionnaire by Snell (2001) including 40 questions and 8 components (depression, happiness, jealousy, anxiety, anger, calmness, composure and fear), and emotional distress tolerance questionnaire (DTS) By Simonzo Gaher (2005) including 15 items and 4 components (tolerance, absorption, evaluation and adjustment), and Lifestyle Questionnaire (LSQ) (2012) which includes 66 questions based on a 5-point Likert scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree).
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypothesis and analyze the data, Spss software version 22 was used, and the results showed that there was a significant difference between the scores of the two groups in the variables of emotional disclosure, distress tolerance and lifestyle. The acquired significance level for research variables in gifted and normal students is less than 0.05. Therefore, it can be said that there is a significant difference between the variables of emotional disclosure, anxiety tolerance and lifestyle in gifted and normal students and the research hypotheses are confirmed.
The aim of this study was to compare the exposure of emotional disclosure, disturbance tolerance and, lifestyle among students of gifted and normal boys' schools in Tonekabon city. The results of this study are consistent with the results of the findings of Kaiser & et al, (2012); Li & et al, (2021); Kalhori, (2021); and Talebi & etal, (2020). The goal of emotional disclosure is to help students evaluate and process their emotional experience and create new meaning in their lives. There is evidence shows that students can significantly experience deep arousal-emotional experience in this way, which is associated with positive outcomes in the treatment of students' problems (Ebadi et al, 2021). Emotional self-disclosure of Identifying conflicting emotions, placing people in an empty-seat conversation position, calming down, breaking down feelings of inadequacy, describing the tone, and extent of distress, and teaching the transition process in emotion-focused therapy also help individuals perform better on lifestyle-related topics (Lumley et al, 2018). The main problem of emotion disclosure is that emotion is an essential part of an individual's structure and a key factor for self-organization. In this regard, the most basic level of emotion function is an adaptive form of information processing and readiness that directs one's behavior and contributes to his psychological well-being (Vera, 2021). Gifted people are outstanding in general intelligence, i.e. their performance in all matters is higher than the average of their peers, but talented people are not superior in all matters to their peers; they are extremely prominent in one or more special areas. They have more adaptability, and in the face of adversity, they have greater self-confidence and emotional stability, and another characteristic of them is their desire for independence (Safaei & Sedaghat, 2020).
According to the present study, it is suggested that educational authorities hold workshops to provide the necessary training to reduce emotional self-disclosure. On the other hand, those involved in the educational system should pay special attention to the improvement and teaching of students' academic and life styles, because with the growth and improvement of positive psychological characteristics, their academic performance increases. On one hand, providing psychological interventions to promote tolerance, optimism and hope will prevent students' confusion. On the other hand, the healthier the students 'lifestyle, the better will be their academic achievement. Therefore, it is suggested that the education departments make plans to improve the students' lifestyle and monitor these goals annually. One of the limitations of the present study is the implementation of research in a sample of students, which reduces the generalization of results to other groups. Based on this, it is suggested that future researchers conduct the present study in other age groups and compare the results with each other.