مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین تأثیر مهارتهای مدیریتی مدیران بر خشنودی شغلی معلمان انجام شد. روش این مطالعه از نوع توصیفی-همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش معلمان و مدیران دوره ابتدایی شهر شیراز در سال تحصیلی 1400-1399 به تعداد 773 نفر (690 نفر معلم و 83 نفر مدیر) بودند که از این تعداد،244 نفر بر اساس جدول کرجسی و مورگان و به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده به عنوان حجم نمونه معلمان انتخاب شدند. در جمع آوری اطلاعات مدیران از روش سرشماری به دلیل محدود بودن جامعه آماری استفاده شد. جهت گردآوری دادهها از پرسشنامههای استاندارد مهارتهای مدیریتی مدیران کاتز (1974) با ضریب پایایی (0.88) و خشنودی شغلی مینه سوتا با ضریب پایایی (0.85) استفاده شد که روایی آنها توسط صاحبنظران دانشگاهی و پایایی آنها نیز از طریق آزمون ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. به منظور تحلیل دادهها از تکنیک معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری SMART PLS و Spss ویرایش 22 استفاده شد. یافتههای کمّی حاصل از آزمون فرضیههای پژوهش نشان داد که میان مهارتهای مدیریتی مدیران مدارس با خشنودی شغلی معلمان رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. نتایج پژوهش نیز نشان داد که مؤلفه مهارت انسانی دارای بیشترین قدرت رابطه با خشنودی شغلی معلمان میباشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Structural modeling of the effect of manager's management skills on teachers' job satisfaction
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of manager's managerial skills on teacher's job satisfaction. The present study is applicable in terms of purpose and descriptive-correlative in terms of nature and method of data collection; and is specifically based on structural equation modeling. The statistical population of the study was primary school teachers and principals in Shiraz in the academic year 1399-1400, 773 people (690 teachers and 83 principals), of which 244 people were selected as the teacher sample size, based on Krejcie and Morgan table and by simple random sampling method. In this study, two questionnaires including the standard management skills questionnaire of Katz (1974) and Minnesota job satisfaction were used. Findings showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between managerial skills of school principals and teacher's job satisfaction. The results also showed that the human skills component has the most power in relation to teacher's job satisfaction.
Successful managers must have specific techniques, methods and knowledge relevant to their field of work, as well as general knowledge and expertise in various fields. Effective managers must also be equipped with human or people skills related to coordination with individuals, self-awareness, understanding of others, motivation, leadership and ability to develop employees. But most managers, especially managers of government agencies, have little human and technical skills and pay more attention to perceptual skills (Zakavati, 2016: 240). Among the issues facing schools in selecting principals, selecting competent principals according to the criteria and components necessary to hold this position and role is important (Mohammadi, Abadi & Fallahzadeh, 2021: 70). There is a lot of evidence that confirms the effect of specialized training on improving the performance of technical managers of organizations (Navid Adham & Shafi'zāde, 2020: 42).
By using the individual and professional competencies of teachers, implementing programs with a clear vision and setting understandable and practical goals, the educational administrators can help improve educational activities, and review and increase school productivity. In addition, educational administrators should evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency and the achievement of educational goals by continuously evaluating the teaching and educational activities of the school and use the appropriate opportunity to review educational programs (Abdullah, 2019: 22). Another task of educational administrators is to pay attention to the interests and desires of teachers, and to provide appropriate conditions and facilities to increase the satisfaction and desire to do organizational work. One of the effective ways to motivate, set and assign specific and achievable goals is to recognize different individual and organizational needs and to coordinate teachers' behavior with school goals (Navid Adham & Shafi'zāde, 2020: 47). Given the above, the main issue of the research is: what effect do managers 'managerial skills have on teachers' job satisfaction?
If we want to have a dynamic and advanced education, its administrators must necessarily change, that is, their knowledge and information must be updated and their technical, perceptual, human and communication attitudes and skills must be developed. Paying attention to this will have many consequences and blessings, one of which is to increase the satisfaction of teachers. In case of increasing teachers' satisfaction, the quality of education, the efficiency of the school system, saving educational costs and the optimal use of time and educational facilities, and etc. will increase, and in general the efficiency and effectiveness of the educational system will increase (Adli & Motallebi Varkani, 2018: 33).
Robert Katz has observed three skills in the field of administrative behavior. Robert Katz's three skill trends all emphasize what one does (Marshall, 2015: 51). These skills include technical skills, human skills and perceptual skills. What managers become familiar with during training courses is actually a kind of technical skill. Courses such as finance, planning, construction plans, recruitment, curriculum planning, purchasing, and the like are taught to educational administrators from the beginning. Technical skills are both easy to teach and easy to learn, and once applied, their learning can be clearly assessed. The ability of a manager as a member of the group to work effectively, to create collective efforts within the group he leads or manages, is called human skill. The difference between human skill and technical skill is working with people (human skill) and working with objects (technical skill). Perceptual skill means the ability to see the organization as a whole. In other words, knowing how the various tasks of the organization are interdependent and how changing one part of the organization affects other departments and units (Eslamieh & Davoudi, 2014: 113)
Zavvar et al, (2021) in a study, examined the role of managers 'creativity in mediating the relationship between participatory management and their social responsibility with teachers' job satisfaction and showed that participatory management and managers' creativity have a direct and significant effect on teachers' job satisfaction even though social responsibility of managers has no direct and significant effect on teachers' job satisfaction; and the role of creativity was confirmed as a mediating variable.
Hadavand, (2020) also evaluated the educational effectiveness of specialized project management courses in a study using the Kirk Patrick model. The evaluation results showed that there is a close relationship between the expected results and the defined goals, which confirms the effectiveness of the course.
The research method is descriptive-correlative in nature and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consisted of 773 teachers and principals of primary schools in Shiraz in the academic year 1300-1499 (690 teachers and 83 principals). The sample size for teachers was 247 based on Krejcie and Morgan table. In order for all members of the statistical sample related to teachers to have an equal chance of being selected, a simple random sampling method was used. The questionnaire of Katez, (1974) for the managerial skills variable, and the questionnaire of (MSQ) for job satisfaction were used to collect related data.
In order to test the research hypothesis, structural equation modeling of structural equation model-finding method with the help of SPSS software for inferential statistics was used. Then regression was used to test the hypotheses with pls software for confirmatory and content factor analysis as well as the effect of factors, and the results showed that management skills with a coefficient of 0.824 have a significant effect on job satisfaction. The t-statistic for this coefficient is 401/576 and its value is more than the significant threshold of 1.96. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this study is that the significant effect of managers 'management skills on teachers' job satisfaction is confirmed. The results also showed that the path coefficient of the effect of technical, perceptual and human skills on job satisfaction is 0.241, 0.264 and 0.559, respectively. The t-statistic for these coefficients is 5.271, 2.016 and 5.631, respectively, which is greater than the significance threshold of 1.96. Therefore, the sub-hypotheses of this study confirm the significant effect of technical, perceptual and human skills on teachers' job satisfaction.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of managers 'managerial skills on teachers' job satisfaction. The results of this study are consistent with the results (Dehghaan Marvasti, 2017) and (Marshal, 2015); their findings show that principals used to be selected solely as school principals, but today school principals are responsible for classroom instruction, learning processes, staff development, curriculum changes, individual and specific school plans, executive plans, and most importantly, actions and decisions of school security, and the role of principals can be emphasized as a factor in teacher satisfaction and improving teacher performance. The more school principals have managerial skills at the technical level, the more professional dependence of teachers will increase. Research findings (Wang & etal, 2018) and (Zavvar & etal, 2021) showed that managers should have an adequate understanding of their role, which includes effective administrative services, monitoring the improvement of teachers' teaching methods, continuous monitoring of compliance with objectives. educational, supervising curriculum planning, the duty of supervising and taking care of affairs and activities for the correct implementation of programs, solving internal and external problems of the school, providing educational technology in schools, creating coordination among staff, supporting staff and teachers and creating a positive and effective organizational atmosphere and culture in the school. According to the present study, it is suggested to the managers of Shiraz education departments to provide the necessary ground to increase the job satisfaction of teachers by holding in-service courses to improve the technical skills of the principal. Since human skill means having the ability and power of discernment to create an environment of understanding and cooperation and to do work by others; School principals are encouraged to know themselves more than anything else, to be aware of their strengths and weaknesses, to be aware of the impact of their words and actions on others, and to be able to provide a safe and acceptable environment for teachers to cooperate.