نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی (کمی )

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت دولتی گرایش توسعه منابع انسانی، گروه مدیریت ، دانشگاه پیام نور ، تهران ،ایران

2 استادیار ، گروه مدیریت ، دانشگاه پیام نور ، تهران ،ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش میانجی سرمایه اجتماعی در تاثیرگذاری سیستم شیوه‌های مدیریت منابع انسانی دانش‌بنیان بر اشتراک‌گذاری دانش می‌باشد. روش پژوهش به لحاظ ماهیت توصیفی-همبستگی و از حیث هدف کاربردی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کارکنان دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز یزد به تعداد 187 نفر تشکیل دادند که از این تعداد، تعداد 124 نفر بر اساس جدول کرجسی و مورگان و به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه‌ای به عنوان حجم نمونه پژوهش انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده‎ها شامل پرسشنامه‎های شیوه‌های مدیریت منابع انسانی دانش‌بنیان لپاک و اسنل (2002)، سرمایه اجتماعی پوتنام (1999) و اشتراک‌گذاری دانش کانلی و همکاران (2012) بود. به منظور تحلیل داده‌ها از تکنیک معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری Lisrel و نیز نرم افزار آماری Spss استفاده شد. یافته‎های پژوهش نشان داد که شیوه‌های مدیریت منابع انسانی دانش‌بنیان بر اشتراک‌گذاری دانش تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارند و مؤلفه سرمایه اجتماعی بیشترین قدرت تأثیر را بر اشتراک‌گذاری دانش داشته است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که سرمایه اجتماعی در تاثیرگذاری سیستم شیوه‌های مدیریت منابع انسانی دانش‌بنیان بر اشتراک‌گذاری دانش بطور فزاینده‌ای نقش میانجی داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The mediating role of social capital in the impact of knowledge-based human resource management practices on knowledge sharing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Damavandian 1
  • Peyman Akbari 2

1 Master of Public Administration, Human Resources Development, Department of Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of social capital in the impact of knowledge-based human resource management practices on knowledge sharing. The research method is descriptive-correlative in nature, and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consisted of 187 employees of Payame Noor University of Yazd branch, of which 124 people were selected based on Krejcie and Morgan table and stratified random sampling as the sample size. Data collection tools included the questionnaires of knowledge-based human resource management practices of Lapak and Snell (2002), Putnam Social Capital (1999), and knowledge sharing of Conley et al. (2012). In order to analyze the data, the structural equation technique was used, accompanied with Lisrel statistical software and Spss statistical software. Findings showed that knowledge-based human resource management practices have a positive and significant effect on knowledge sharing, and the social capital component has the greatest impact on knowledge sharing. The results showed that social capital has increasingly mediated the impact of knowledge-based human resource management practices on knowledge sharing.
Introduction
Resource-based theory states that an organization's superior performance depends on a unique set of strategic resources that organizations must possess and make good use of them (Barney et al, 2011). These strategic resources include the financial, physical, human, and organizational assets that the company uses to conceptualize, produce, or deliver services / products to its clients / customers. Companies need qualitative human capital to meet the needs shown by the resource-based theory, in order to meet the needs of the customer / client and maintain their position in the market. Employees are in fact the strategic tools through by which companies develop relationships and networks (McDonnell et al, 2016), especially the strategic assets of knowledge-based organizations that are specific to their organization. Therefore, leadership in the organization in relation to human resource professionals must integrate human capital for internal and extra-organizational solidarity in accordance with the achievement of organizational goals. Researchers based their research on social capital theory in relation to a network of valuable relationships available to colleagues who use network relationships to share knowledge assets among themselves (Zhang et al, 2017). Social capital is a strategic resource that the employee derives from his / her communication networks (Yu et al, 2013). The researchers in this study hypothesize that knowledge sharing in the organization is actually the result of interactions and relationships between colleagues. Social capital may be an important asset to facilitate knowledge sharing (Chang & Chuang, 2011). In addition, knowledge creation and management of it are enhanced through learning, which requires colleagues to exchange and share insights, knowledge, and mental models. Therefore, using the theory of social capital, researchers will assume that knowledge sharing essentially involves interactive activities. Thus, social capital will play an important role in improving the knowledge, skills and abilities of colleagues, and will create the conditions for influencing knowledge sharing for the performance of innovation in the organization (Aklamanu et al, 2016). Given the above, the main issue of the research is whether the system of knowledge-based human resource management methods with emphasis on the mediating role of social capital has a significant effect on knowledge sharing.
Theoretical framework
Human resource management influences employees' job-related attitudes, abilities, and behaviors to achieve organizational goals, and plays an important role in supporting the organizational environment in favor of knowledge management activities (Singh et al, 2020).
Social capital represents a type of social network, trust, and set of norms that brings colleagues together to facilitate coordination and collaboration for the mutual benefit of colleagues in order to achieve the larger goals of the organization. Social capital is a strategic resource consisting of three dimensions including structure, relationship and cognition (Ferraris et al, 2018).
The process of knowledge management in the organization includes the acquisition, storage, sharing and application of knowledge to achieve the goals of the organization. Knowledge management transfer activities allow colleagues to share relevant work experience (Shamim et al, 2019).
Konjkav Monfared & Maharat (2022) examined the impact of social capital on entrepreneurial orientation, creativity and university performance with the mediating role of knowledge management. The research findings confirmed the effect of structural, communicational and cognitive dimensions of social capital in the university on knowledge management. The findings also showed that social capital increased creativity and entrepreneurship and increased organizational performance by improving knowledge management in the university. Findings show that the university's emphasis on knowledge management and social capital in interaction with each other is the first step to improve organizational performance.
Nadalizadeh & Doshman Ziyari (2021) examined the relationship between knowledge sharing, innovation and social capital based on path analysis (Case study: Perges International Consortium). The results showed a positive and significant effect of social capital on knowledge sharing, and knowledge sharing on innovation, while the effect of social capital on innovation has not been confirmed; and based on the path analysis technique, the role of knowledge sharing has been perfect mediatory.
Methodology
The research method is descriptive-correlative in nature, and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the research consists of 187 employees of Payame Noor University of Yazd branch, of which 124 people were selected; based on Krejcie and Morgan table and stratified random sampling as the sample size of the study. For data collecting related to the variable of knowledge-based human resource management, standard questionnaires of Lapak and Snell (2002); and for Social Capital variable, standard questionnaires of Putnam (1999); for and knowledge sharing variable, standard questionnaires of Conley et al. (2012) was used.
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypothesis, structural equation modeling of structural equation modeling method with the help of SPSS software, inferential statistics was used to test the hypotheses. Then, for the effects of independent and mediating variables with dependent variables, the eighth edition LISREL statistical software was used, and the results showed that the direct effect of knowledge-based human resource management practices system on knowledge sharing is equal to (0.41). The indirect effect of knowledge-based human resource management practices system on knowledge sharing in the presence of social capital mediating variable is (0.50). Due to the fact that the effect of direct path is less than that of indirect paths, therefore, the existence of the mediator variable of social capital increases the power of influence and the mediating role of social capital in the present hypothesis is confirmed. The impact of knowledge-based human resource management practices on social capital is calculated to be equal to (0.61), which indicates the desired impact. The t-test of the test was obtained (7.59), which is greater than the critical value of t at an error level of 5%, i.e. 1.96, and shows that the observed effect is significant. Therefore, it can be said that knowledge-based human resource management practices have a positive and significant effect on social capital. The power of social capital on knowledge sharing is equal to (0.82), which indicates the desired effect. The t-test of the test was obtained (9.80), which is greater than the critical value of t at the error level of 5%, i.e. 1.96, and shows that the observed effect is significant. Therefore, it can be said that social capital has a positive and significant effect on knowledge sharing, and the power of knowledge-based human resource management practices on knowledge sharing has been calculated equal to (0.41), which indicates the desired effect. The t-test of the test was obtained (8.71), which is greater than the critical value of t at the error level of 5%, i.e. 1.96, and shows that the observed effect is significant.
Conclusion
The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of social capital in the impact of knowledge-based human resource management practices on knowledge sharing (Case study: Payame Noor University, Yazd Province). The results of this study are consistent with the results of Salehi (2017), Gürlek, M., & Çemberci (2020), and Yuliarmi et al, (2021); Peer-to-peer relationships in a social network facilitate knowledge transfer and improve the value of information and knowledge shared between them. We assume that knowledge sharing in the organization begins at the individual level versus the individual relationships and career of the employee (Yan & Guan, 2018). Social capital in an organization is well placed in the network of relationships between colleagues, and is known as the cornerstone of knowledge creation and sharing in the organization, which is necessary for knowledge management activities in the organization (Paker et al, 2016). According to the present study, which shows that knowledge-based human resource management practices are a necessary precondition for cultivating employees' social capital in the workplace, manpower generally is placed in the social network of the relationships that link them together for mutual benefit, and can cause these employees to have specific organizational characteristics, that makes them more valuble for a particular organization (rather than other organizations in the market). Therefore, managers and organizations should use knowledge-based methods of human resource management in which employees are immersed in their network of relationships and use the resulting social capital for greater benefits of the organization to share knowledge for competitive advantage.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social capital
  • human resource management practices
  • knowledge bases
  • knowledge sharing
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