هدف تحقیق حاضر مدل سازی ساختاری تأثیر سرپرستی توهین آمیز بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی در مراکز آموزش فنی و حرفهای استان کرمان میباشد. این تحقیق به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش، از نوع همبستگی میباشد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق عبارت است از کلیه کارکنان در مراکز آموزش فنی و حرفهای استان کرمان که تعداد آنها در سال 1400 به 207 نفر بالغ گردیده است. به دلیل محدودیت جامعه آماری تمامی اعضای آن به عنوان نمونه انتخاب و به صورت سرشماری مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از دو پرسشنامة سرپرستی توهین آمیز میتچل و آمبروس (2007) و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی اورگان (1998) استفاده شد. روایی محتوایی پرسشنامهها براساس نظر خبرگان، و روایی سازه آن با روش تحلیل عاملی تاییدی بررسی شد. پایایی آنها نیز با محاسبة، پایایی ترکیبی ضریب آلفای کرونباخ تأیید شد. دادههای جمعآوریشده با روش مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری با نرمافزار لیزرل تجزیه و تحلیل شد. یافتههای تحقیق حاکی از آن است که به طور کلی سرپرستی توهین آمیز بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی تأثیر معکوس و معناداری دارد. با افزایش رفتارهای توهین آمیز سرپرست، کارکنان روحیه خود را از دست میدهند در نتیجه انگیزه آنها پایین میآید و در نتیجه رفتار شهروندی سازمانی کاهش مییابد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Structural modeling of the effect of offensive supervision on organizational citizenship behavior (Case study: Technical and vocational training centers in Kerman province)
The purpose of this study is structural modeling of the effect of offensive supervision on organizational citizenship behavior in technical and vocational education centers in Kerman province. This research is applicable in terms of purpose, and correlative in nature and method. The statistical population of this research is all employees in technical and vocational training centers in Kerman province, whose number has increased to 207 in 2021. Due to the limitations of the statistical population, all its members have been selected as a sample and studied by census. Questionnaires of Mitchell and Ambrose (2007) and Oregon Organizational Citizenship Behavior (1998) were used to collect data. The content validity of the questionnaires was assessed based on the opinion of experts, and the construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis. Their reliability was also confirmed by calculating the combined reliability of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The collected data were analyzed by structural equation modeling with LISREL software. Findings indicate that in general, offensive supervision has a significant inverse effect on organizational citizenship behavior. As the supervisor's offensive behaviors increase, employees lose their morale, as a result of which their motivation decreases and eventually, organizational citizenship behavior decreases.
An issue raised in the last two decades and in addition to behaviorists, has also attracted the attention of psychologists and sociologists, is organizational citizenship behavior (ho & Le, 2020). Organizational citizenship behavior is a valuable and useful behavior (Sadeghi afjeh, 2014) that includes various behaviors of employees such as accepting and taking on additional responsibilities, following the rules and procedures of the organization, maintaining and developing a positive attitude, patience and Tolerance of dissatisfaction and problems in the workplace (Qiu et al, 2019). Thus, organizational citizenship behavior contributes to the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations through resource changes, innovations, and adaptability (Gholam Hossaini, 2011). The most important indicator of organizational citizenship behavior is more effort to achieve the goals of the organization, in a situation where the individual is not accounted on and the job is not considered as an individual duty (eghbal et al, 2018; Lopez-dominguez et al, 2013). Examining organizational citizenship behavior and its influencing factors due to the importance of such behaviors to respond to changing demands in today's turbulent and dynamic environments and markets, seems necessary (Podsakoff, et al, 2009; liu & cohen, 2010; rukkhum & Bartlett, 2012; ho & Le, 2020). Meanwhile, a new concept has entered the management literature that has negative effects on organizations. In recent decades, there has been a growing research movement on the subject of offensive supervision, defined as "employee perceptions of leaders' continued use of verbal and nonverbal hostile behaviors, which of course do not include physical contact and action." "(Tepper, 2000). Offensive leadership, which is recognized as one of the most prominent forms of destructive leadership (karsikova, et al, 2013), has detrimental effects on the organization and subordinates (martinko, et al, 2013; Tepper, 2000).
According to the above, the main issue of the research is: what effect does offensive supervision have on organizational citizenship behavior (Case study: technical and vocational training centers in Kerman province)?
Organizational citizenship behaviors have a special place in governmental and public organizations (Caillier, 2015; Chan & lai, 2017), because they directly and indirectly contribute to the effectiveness of the organization (Lepine, Erez & Johnso, 2002; Bowling, 2010; Ahmed & Filadelfo, 2016). Organizational citizenship behavior refers to those activities related to the role of individuals in the organization that go beyond the expectations of the job and job description. Although the organization's formal reward system does not identify these behaviors, the individual performs these activities at a level beyond these formal rewards (Castro et al, 2004). Tepper (2000) defines offensive supervision as "employees' perceptions of leaders' continueous use of verbal and nonverbal hostile behaviors - which, of course, do not include physical action and contact." Offensive supervision has negative effects on organizations, offensive supervision has a negative impact on the mental health of subordinates. Threats and real loss of resources activate the stress process, which in turn causes harm to employees' health (Carlson et al, 2012).
Ho & Le (2020) conducted a study to examine the relationship between benevolent leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors with the mediating role of member leader exchange in Vietnamese universities. The results of the analysis show the mediating effect of leader-member exchange in the communication between benevolent leadership confirms citizenship behavior. University leaders can benevolently motivate university staff to engage in extra-role behaviors that motivate not only the organization but also other colleagues and students by fostering a good, high-quality leader exchange.
kee et al (2019) conducted a study entitled "The Effects of Genuine Leadership on Leadership Trust, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Service Quality in China's Hospitality Industry". According to the results, genuine leadership has a significant effect on trust in leaders, organizational citizenship behavior and service quality in China's hospitality industry.
This research is descriptive-correlative in nature, and practical in terms of purpose. The statistical population of this study includes all employees of technical and vocational training centers in Kerman province, whose number is 207 in 2021. Due to the limited statistical population, all its members have been selected as a sample and studied by census. 199 completed questionnaires were collected. To collect data related to research variables, Mitchell and Ambrose (2007) Offensive Supervision Questionnaire (10 questions) and Oregon(1998) Organizational Citizenship Behavior (15 questions); based on a 5-point Likert scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree) were used.
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypothesis and analyze the data, Lisrel software was used and the results showed that the significant numbers between the active assaults on organizational citizenship behavior are -10.63, which is significant because this value is greater than 1.96. The standard number between active assaults on organizational citizenship behavior is -0.84. Active assault has an inverse effect on organizational citizenship behavior, that is, it decreases with increasing active aggression on organizational citizenship behavior. Also, the significant numbers between passive aggressions on organizational citizenship behavior are -11.11. Because this value is greater than 1.96; a passive attack on organizational citizenship behavior is significant. This relationship is inverse and significant, that is, it decreases with increasing passive aggression on organizational citizenship behavior. The standard coefficient of passive attack on organizational citizenship behavior is -0.59, so passive attack has an inverse effect on organizational citizenship behavior.
The aim of this study was to investigate the structural modeling of the effect of offensive supervision on organizational citizenship behavior (Case study: technical and vocational training centers in Kerman province). The results of this study are consistent with the results of the findings of Ari et al, (2007, and Zelares et al, (2002). Based on the results of hypothesis testing, offensive supervision has a significant and inverse effect on organizational citizenship behavior. That is, with the increase of offensive behaviors of the supervisor, employees lose their morale; as a result, their motivation decreases and consequently, organizational citizenship behavior decreases, so offensive supervision has a fundamental role in reducing citizenship behavior. Organizational citizenship behavior also decreases with increasing active and passive aggressive behavior. In other words, with the decrease of offensive behaviors, organizational citizenship behavior increases. Thus, the managers of technical and vocational training centers must minimize offensive and abusive behaviors in order to improve their performance and response to clients. Therefore, proper and compassionate management can improve citizenship behavior and consequently improve performance. Offensive supervising always blames and harasses subordinates for previous mistakes or negligence, or humiliates and contempts subordinates in the presence of others (Tepper, 2000). Unpleasant experiences of such offensive behaviors in daily activities by subordinates leads to the decrease of job satisfaction level (Hobman et al, 2009; Bowling & michell, 2011; kornan & et al, 2011). Offensive supervision reduces the level of organizational commitment and organizational identity of employees, and causes employees to not perform even properly in addition to extra-role behaviors. Behaviors such as attacking employees' self-esteem, insulting and humiliating them, and mocking them also reduce the positive attitudes that people share while doing work and reduce role-playing behaviors.
According to the results of this study, managers are advised to avoid offensive behaviors to encourage employees to engage in organizational citizenship behaviors, and motivate them to show voluntary or extra-role behaviors in addition to their main duties by encouraging. In the practical field, it is suggested to study the factors that can play a mediating or moderating role in the relationship between offensive supervision and organizational citizenship behavior.