این پژوهش با هدف بررسی اثربخشی آموزش مهارتهای مدیریت کلاس بر جوّ روانی- اجتماعی کلاس و خودکارآمدی معلمان انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش نیمه تجربی از نوع پیش آزمون-پس آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیه معلمان جدیدالاستخدام شهر زابل (استان سیستان و بلوچستان) در سال تحصیلی 1401-1400 تشکیل میدهد. نمونه آماری شامل 30 نفر معلم میباشد که به شیوه نمونهگیری تصادفی انتخاب و در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل (هر گروه 15 نفر) جایگزین شدند. ابزار جمع آوری دادهها پرسشنامههای جوّ روانی-اجتماعی کلاس فرایزر و همکاران و خودکارآمدی معلم تچانن و همکاران بود که تمام آزمودنیها در مرحله پیش آزمون آن را تکمیل کردند، سپس برنامه آموزش مهارتهای ارتباطی بین فردی برای گروه آزمایش در هشت جلسه (60 دقیقهای) اجرا شد و در نهایت، پس آزمون از تمام گروههای گروه آزمایش و کنترل گرفته شد. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها از آمار توصیفی (میانگین و انحراف معیار) و آمار استنباطی (تحلیل کوواریانس تک متغیره) با کمک نرمافزار SPSS21 استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که آموزش مهارتهای ارتباطی بین فردی بر جوّ روانی-اجتماعی کلاس و خودکارآمدی معلم تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد. بنابراین میتوان آموزش مهارتهای مدیریت کلاس را به عنوان یکی از پیش نیازهای ورود به حرفه معلمی برای معلمان تازه کار مورد نظر قرار داد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The effectiveness of classroom management skills training on classroom psychosocial climate and teacher’s self-efficacy
The Purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of classroom management skills training on classroom psychosocial climate and teacher’s self-efficacy. A quasi experimental design was employed with pretest, posttest and control group. The population of this study included all new teachers employed in Zabol city (Sistan and Baluchestan province) in the academic year 2021-2022. The sample consisted of 30 teachers which were randomly selected in two groups of 15 experimental and control groups. The data collection instrument was questionnaires of classroom psychosocial climate of Fraser et al., and teachers' self-efficacy of Techanan-Mooran et al., that all participants completed as the pre-test. Then, the relationship intra-individual skills training were conducted in the experimental group for eight sessions (60 minutes). Finally, the posttest was completed by both experimental and control groups. The univariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The findings indicated that classroom management skills training has a positive and significant effect on classroom psychosocial climate and teacher self-efficacy. Therefore, classroom management skills training should be considered as one of the prerequisites for the teaching profession for novice teachers.
Teacher self-efficacy is described as his judgment about his abilities to make positive results for students' learning and engage them in educational affairs (Jessica et al, 2021). Self- effective teachers create an optimal psychological-social climate for learners. The classroom psychological-social climate means social communication template among classmates and relation with teacher and general form of teaching and training. (Soldozi, 2020) The classroom psychological-social climate can be enriched by cohesion, it can be disciplined, assignment-based, challenging and striving or competitive (özüdoğra.2020). If teachers don't manage the classroom properly, they can't control teaching-learning process and they don't make a suitable climate for learning. (Jafari et al., 2017) The effective management is considered to be one of the most important issues for teachers, especially for novice ones will be more complicated (Flower et al., 2017). Since novice teachers are worried about creating a suitable environment for learning and class management, they can not conveniently conduct whatever they have learned from academic training, as a result they always feel a sense of failure and inefficiency (Hajitabar Firouzjaee, 2020). Here, the project's results help teachers especially novice ones to manage and control the class effectively by learning the classroom management skills and creating a psychological-social climate for students. In this way they will promote their self-efficacy in teaching too. So the main issue of the project is to survey the effect of training class management skill on teacher's self-efficacy and create a psychological-social climate in class.
The classroom management includes teaching management, personnel management and behavior management (Emmer et al., 1980). The classroom management styles are introduced in this way; non-intrusive, interventional and interactively (Glickman & Tamashiro, 1982). The best management style is a management in which limitations and expectations are accounted, and presented in a simple and intelligible language, by means of proper methods and devices for training (lm et al., 2019). Techanan-Mooran et al, (1998) describe teacher self-efficacy as his/her judgment about his/her abilities to create positive outcomes for students learning and involvement in education even with problematic and unmotivated students. They are divided into three subscales "student involvement ", "teaching methods", and "classroom management "Teachers with high self -efficacy design their educational goals and try to use new method to overcome the challenges they face and achieve their goals (Ross.2002). Teachers with self efficacy are more skillful in organizing education, asking questions, explaining, giving appropriate feedback to students in difficult situations continually and keeping students active in their homeworks (Chan.2008). Teachers who feel more self sufficient, can provide more opportunities for their students to progress (Skaalvic & Skaalvic, 2007). Friser et al., (1987) state that the classroom climate and situations are created by school, teachers, classmates and other school agents. Psycho-social environment influence on student’s activities, classmate orientation, teacher orientation, school orientation, behavior, self-efficacy, learning empowerments, self-concept, success and schooling achievement, emotional and social development, class leadership style, teacher's fatigue and quality of school life (Fraser, 1981).
Akyar et al (2022) discovered that there is a relationship between the class management skills and the students' self-regulative guidelines (self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-enhancement).
Fathi et al (2021) discovered that in spite of the effect of self-efficiency and the teacher's acceptance of the job-fatigue, the teacher's self-efficiency is more predictive in their job-fatigue.
Veisi et al (2021) discovered that class management authority sources (specialty, encouragement, punishment, and resourcefulness) are able to predict the teacher's style of teaching.
A quasi experimental design was employed with pretest, posttest and control group. The population of this study included all new teachers were employed in Zabol city (Sistan and Baluchestan province) in the academic year 2021-2022. The sample consisted of 30 teachers which were randomly divided in two groups of 15 experimental and control. The data collection instrument was questionnaires of classroom psychosocial climate of Fraser et al., and teacher self-efficacy of Techanan-Mooran et al., that all participants completed as the pre-test. Then, the classroom management skills training were conducted in the experimental group for eight sessions (60 minutes). Finally, the same questionnaire was completed by both experimental and control groups. In order to analyze the data, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (univariate analysis of covariance) were used by SPSS21.
The first finding show that the mean of classroom psychosocial climate in the post test of experimental group is significantly higher than that of control group (Sig=0/002, DF=27&1, F=11.134). Based on the first hypothesis of research (classroom management skills training has a positive and significant effect on class psychosocial climate) it is confirmed that the rate of this effect will be 0.292.
The second finding shows that the mean of teacher's self-efficacy in post test relating to experimental group is significantly higher than that of control group (Sig=0/001, DF=27&1, F=40.410). Based on this hypothesis of research (the classroom management skills training has a positive and significant effect on teacher's self-efficacy) it is confirmed that the rate of this effect will be 0.599.
This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of classroom management skills training on the psychosocial climate of teachers' overall self-efficacy. The results showed that management skills training has a positive and significant effect on the psychosocial climate of the classroom and teachers' self-efficacy. This finding is consistent with the results of studies (Browne, 2013, Shobe, 2003, Kerssen-Griep & Witt, 2012, Lewis et al., 2008, Nakamur, 2000, Abu-Tineh et al., 2011, Stronge, 2018). Explaining this finding, it can be said that teaching classroom management skills causes teachers to teach classroom rules to students, to apply the rules in a coherent and fair manner among students, to act preventively and proactively against inappropriate student behaviors, involve students in the process of creating and maintaining rules and procedures, spend more time on teaching, and waste less time on distractions, and know when to change daily activities or when there is a need to intervene to avoid behavioral problems, to be willing to be exposed to problems when problems arise so that they can eliminate them; they consciously reduce their physical or mental distance from students resulting in an attractive, task-oriented, and organized class. In these classes, the relationship between teacher and student is positive and based on mutual respect, and educational expectations from students are clarified, and a suitable structure is provided to meet the expectations. As a result, they lead the psycho-social climate of the class to the desired climate and have a higher sense of self-efficacy. According to the findings of this study (the positive effect of classroom management skills training on the psychosocial climate of the classroom and teacher self-efficacy), it is suggested to education planners to design a program to teach classroom management skills in the form of workshops, brochures or books for teachers.