همهگیری کرونا ازنظر برنامههای آموزشی فشـــار زیادی بر معلمان وارد کرده اســت. لذا پژوهش حاضر باهدف بررسی فرسودگی شغلی معلمان با توجه به نقش واسطهای خودکنترلی و حمایت اجتماعی در همهگیری کرونا انجام شد. طرح پژوهش توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی بود و جامعه آن شامل 110 نفر معلمان مقطع ابتدایی شهر بروجرد در سال تحصیلی 1400-1399 بود. حجم نمونه 86 نفر تعیین شد که با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. پرسشنامههای مورداستفاده شامل مقیاس حمایت اجتماعی شربورن و استوارت (1991)، خودکنترلی تانجی (2004)، فرسودگی شغلی مسلش (1981) بود. دادهها با استفاده از نرمافزار SPSS-21 مورد تجزیهوتحلیل قرار گرفت. یافتههای حاصل از پژوهش رابطه معنیدار منفی به میزان (752/0-r=) میان خودکنترلی با فرسودگی شغلی معلمان را نشان داد. همچنین بین حمایت اجتماعی با فرسودگی شغلی معلمان رابطه منفی و معنیدار (821/0-r=) وجود داشت؛ بنابراین میتوان نتیجه گرفت که خودکنترلی بالا و حمایت اجتماعی اطرافیان با کاهش فرسودگی شغلی معلمان رابطه دارد. با توجه به همهگیری کرونا این بحران بر عملکرد معلمان تأثیر داشته و زمینه فرسودگی شغلی آنان فراهم مینماید. با توجه به این مسئله ارائه آموزشها و ایجاد سیستمهای حمایتی و آموزش خودکنترلی بر پیشگیری فرسودگی شغلی معلمان در همهگیری کرونا ضروری به نظر میرسد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the job burnout of teachers due to the role of mediating self-control and social support in corona epidemic
The corona epidemic has put a lot of pressure on teachers in terms of curricula. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the burnout of teachers with regard to the mediating role of self-control and social support in corona epidemic. The research design was descriptive and correlative and its population included 110 primary school teachers in Boroujerd in the academic year 2020-2021. The sample size was 86 people who were selected by means of simple random sampling method. The applied questionnaires included the Sherborne and Stewart (1991) Social Support Scale, Tangier Self-Control (2004), and Masslash Occupational Burnout (1981). Data were analyzed by means of SPSS-21 software. Findings of the study showed a significant negative relationship (r = -0.752) between self-control and teachers' burnout. Also, there was a negative and significant relationship between social support and teachers' burnout (r = -0.821); Therefore, it can be concluded that high self-control and social support of people around are associated with reducing teacher burnout. Due to the corona epidemic, this crisis is affecting the performance of teachers and provides the ground for their burnout. Given this issue, it is necessary to provide training and support systems and self-control training to prevent burnout of teachers in the corona epidemic.
The epidemic of Corona has had a lot of pressure on teachers in terms of physical and emotional. Conditions with stress and severe anxiety, emergencies, and the occurrence of natural disasters can create a risk of mental and psychological complications in teachers. Studies have shown that there is a significant relationship between the prevalence of corona and mental health problems such as stress, burnout and anxiety (Mo, et al, 2020; Nemati et al, 2020; Wu, et al, 2020). The rapid prevalence of corona pervasive disease has a great pressure on physical, social, economic and mental health of the whole community, especially teachers. Beside facing inconsistencies such as mortality, among the causes of occupational burnout, there are factors such as: low social support, high occupational pressure, lack of job security, low rights and benefits, decision-making in emergency situations based on inadequate information and accountability for the results of this decisions, effort with psychological pressure to avoid any mistake, (Talaei et al, 2008; Saberi, et al, 2008), the conflict of roles and values, lack of forces or their inappropriate distribution (Anoosheh et al, 2008) noted.
The prevalence of the Corona virus creates a situation in which the psychological and physical aspects of the job burnout of teachers was investigated as one of the most important current issues. In this research, the two components of "social support" and "self-control" rules, one representative of the human social dimension and the other representative of the individual (self) human beings, tried to consider the separate effects of the society and the person himself on teachers' job burnout. One reason of conducting the present study was lack of the studies of any kind, with the mentioned variabels in epidemic corona on the teachers. In addition, considering the importance of job burnout and the limited research in this area, the present study seeks to answer this question that if there is a relationship between self-control and social support on one hand, and teachers' job burnout on the other. Therefore, the overall purpose of this research is to investigate the job burnout of teachers due to the mediative role of self-control and social support in corona epidemic.
Since birth, humans live in a network of social relationships, and as Vigotsky says; community is the origin of the psyche of human being, which forms by the process of connection (Leontiev, 2005). People may take care of their decisions or control it, or hurriedly interrupt their inner feelings in decision-making, which are referred to self-control behavior (Bashirir et al, 2012).
In the research as a study of the relationship between social support and burnout of girls' school teachers, Saeedi (2017) showed that there was a significant relationship between social support and job burnout. This means that the higher the level of social support the lower the job burnout. Ernani (2016) in the research, as determining the contribution of control of emotions and self-control and assessment of psychological stress in the prediction of job burnout in the female nurses, showed that there is a significant negative relationship between self-control and job burnout, that in this regard, he suggested self-control promotion to reduce job burnout.
The research design was descriptive and correlative. The statistical population of the study consisted of 110 primary school teachers in Boroujerd, in the academic year of 2020-2021. 86 people participated in the research that were selected by random sampling method. In order to check more closely, the research was conducted one year after the commencement of the epidemic disease. The completion of the questionnaire was so that concluded only teachers with at least 10 years of job background. Data were collected by means of SHERBURN & STEWART (1991) social support scale questionair, Tanji (2004) self-control scale questionnaire, and Maslach, (1981) Job burnout scale.
Discussion and Results
Demographic data analysis of the descriptive indices of the study showed that in the sample set of 86 people; informational support has an average of 3.72 and the standard deviation of 0.47, devise support has an average of 3.99 and the standard deviation of 0.42, self-esteem support has an average of 3.53 and the standard deviation of 0.6, social network support has an average of 16.4 and a standard deviation of 0.51, initial self-control has an average of 61.6 and a standard deviation of 0.48, preventive self-control has an average of 61.6 and 0.42 standard deviation, and burnout Job has an average of 2/18 and a standard deviation is 0.34; therefore, the mean dimensions of social support and self-control of cutting point 3 were higher (in the middle limit of the 5 Likert spectrum), and therefore the dimensions of social support and self-control were high, while the mean job burnout of the cutting point 4 was lower (the middle limit of the Likert 7 spectrum). And so the level of burnout has been lower.
Considering that because the significance level of all components and sub-components is 0.000 and smaller than the error value of 0.05, for all components and sub-components the assumption zero denied, and the assumption one approved.
Findings showed that there is a negative and significant relationship between self-control and its subscales of primary self-control and preventive self-control in the amount of -0.673, -0.709, respectively. Findings also showed that there is a meaningful negative relationship between social support and its subscales which include information support, social network support, self-esteem support, device support in the amount of -0.624, -0.678, -0.540, -0.587, respectively.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the job burnout of teachers due to the role of self-control mediating and social support in corona epidemic. The findings of the research were consistent with the results of Ernani (2016), Bastami (2016), and Seibert et al (2016). In explaining this finding, it can be said that according to Barsirian et al (2012), the people with high self-control look after their decisions and control them, or involve in hurrying and mix their inner feelings with the decisions. Teachers with high self-control may have better results in long-term performance. The findings of the research were consistent with the results of Ghasemi (2019), and Dogan et al (2015). In explaining this finding, it can be said that when the mental pressure rises, those who have high social support do not show the signals of depression. And therefore social support, by increasing the correct understanding of stressful psychological events, reduces the effect of psychological stress. The results of the findings showed that social support in the epidemic of Corona played an important role in the self-confidence of teachers, and will be effective in dealing with their burnout.