پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین نقش میانجی پیوند با مدرسه در رابطه میان سرسختی روانشناختی با پرخاشگری انجام شد. روش این مطالعه از نوع توصیفی-همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش دانش آموزان دختر متوسطه دوم شهر رامسر بودند. تعداد 217 نفر بهعنوان حجم نمونه آماری و به روش نمونهگیری خوشهای انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری دادهها پرسشنامههای پیوند با مدرسه رضایی شریف و حاجیلو (2016)، سرسختی روانشناختی لانگ و گولت (2003) و پرخاشگری آیزنگ و گلین ویلسون (1975) بود که روایی آنها توسط صاحبنظران دانشگاهی و پایایی آنها نیز از طریق آزمون ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. بهمنظور تحلیل دادهها از تکنیک معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرمافزار آماری Lisrel و نیز نرمافزار آماری Spss استفاده شد. یافتههای کمّی حاصل از آزمون فرضیههای پژوهش نشان داد که میان سرسختی روانشناختی با پیوند با مدرسه رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. میان پیوند با مدرسه با پرخاشگری دانش آموزان رابطه منفی و معناداری وجود دارد. میان سرسختی روانشناختی با پرخاشگری دانش آموزان رابطه منفی و معناداری وجود دارد و نهایتاً پیوند با مدرسه در رابطه میان سرسختی روانشناختی با پرخاشگری دانش آموزان نقش میانجی داشته است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The mediating role of school bonds in the relationship between psychological toughness and aggression in female high school students
The aim of this study was to determine the mediating role of school bonding in the relationship between psychological toughness and aggression. The method of this study was descriptive-correlative. The statistical population of the study was the second female high school students in Ramsar. A total of 217 students were selected as the statistical sample size by cluster sampling. Data collection tools were Rezaei Sharif and Hajiloo School Connection Questionnaires (2016), Long and Golett Psychological Hardiness(2003), and Eiseng and Glenn Wilson Aggression (1975), which were validated by academic experts and their reliability was confirmed by Cronbach alpha coefficient test. The structural equation technique was used to analyze the data, using Lisrel statistical software and Spss statistical software. Quantitative findings of testing the research hypotheses showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between psychological toughness and school bonding. There is a negative and significant relationship between school bonding and students' aggression. There is a negative and significant relationship between psychological toughness and student aggression, and finally, the link with school has played a mediating role in the relationship between psychological toughness and aggression of the student.
Today, education, either in general or specific, is an important part of every person's life, and the quality and quantity of education also plays an important role in the future of the individual. Therefore, the psychologists have spent nearly one century to identify exhaustively the predictive factors of academic achievement. Awareness of students' psychological aspects can act as a powerful teaching aid tool. For example, understanding how students behave in certain situations can increase effectiveness of educational tools as well as teacher training methods and education system and finally students' progress (Hamedi Nasab., & Asgari, 2020). Students' academic achievement is one of the important indicators and criteria for the efficiency of the educational system, and therefore the analysis of related factors is one of the most basic research topics in the education system. The study and review of already-done researches shows that academic achievement is not the result of one single factor but several factors affect this variable. Communication with the school can be defined as the extent to which students feel satisfied with being in school; Relationship with the school is defined as students' perception of school support that has a favorable atmosphere and a supportive culture (Rezaei Sharif, Hajloo, 2016). On the other hand, connection with school includes the definition of participation in school, commitment to valued principles, and beliefs to school, and the mental feeling of being accepted, encouraged by others in the classroom, and the feeling that one is an important part of classroom activity. Also, the concept of connection with the school includes the connection of students' experiences with the school, the feeling of security in it, receiving respect from teachers, attachment to the school, the level of participation and involvement in the school and commitment to school values and beliefs (Jafari Harand & et al. 2019). Meanwhile, aggression among children and adolescents is a serious social problem rapidly spread in recent years (World Health Organization, 2015). Aggression and violence exist from childhood and are kept on over time and continue into adolescence and adulthood; so that the highest emergence of aggression is in adolescence (Shakeri, et al., 2019). Aggression weakens the regulation and management of emotions, expressing inappropriate behaviors and emotions, slowing down mental processing and hasty and inappropriate decision making (Jalil, et al., 2017). Hardiness is a set of personality traits introduced by Cubasa (1979) and acts as a source of resistance to stressful life events. This personality variable consists of three interrelated components including commitment, control, and challenge. People with high stubbornness feel more committed to whatever they do, and dedicate themselves to the goal (commitment) in addition to feeling in control of the situation (control) and considering the challenges and limitations of life as an opportunity to grow (challenge) (Hashemi, et al., 2019). Psychological stubbornness creates a certain inner attitude that on the one hand affects a person's view of his abilities and on the other hand has a positive effect on how a person performs among peers and the community. The characteristics such as significant curiosity, the desire to have interesting and meaningful experiences, the belief in the effectiveness of what is mentally imagined, the expectation that changing is natural, and any important stimulus can lead to growth and development can affect academic and social performance. (Azimi, et al., 2018). Based on the above, the researcher tries to answer the question of whether there is a significant relationship between psychological stubbornness and aggression of high school female students with the mediating role of bonding with school.
Zhang (2010) states that stubbornness is associated with five major personality factors; So that the three components of stubbornness (commitment, control and challenge) have a negative and significant relationship with neuroticism and a positive and significant relationship with the other four personality factors (extraversion, delightedness, pleasantness and conscientiousness). Psychological toughness also reduces depression and anxiety. Psychological hardiness reduces test anxiety and increases students' academic achievement (Azimi, et al., 2018). Social psychologists define aggressive behavior as conscious behavior aimed at inflicting physical or mental suffering. This behavior should not be confused with the prove-oneself-to-others, although many people roughly call others aggressive (Sharifi, S.2017).
The research method is descriptive-correlative in nature and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study consists of 1774 female students studying in the second secondary school of Ramsar city in the 1300-1400academic year. Due to the large size of the statistical population, three schools were randomly selected and one classroom was selected from each school, which included the tenth, eleventh and twelfth grades. A total of 9 classrooms were selected with a student population of 250. Accordingly, the sampling method was cluster random. Library and field methods were used to collect data. Considering that all the questionnaires used in the present study have been reviewed by university professors and experts and their validity and reliability have been measured; the researcher personally took action on the validity and reliability of research tools to improve the validity of the questionnaires.
Discussion and Results
Structural equation modeling has been used for analysis. Since the root mean index of the mean squared is approximately 0.037, the model has a good fit. Other goodness-of-fit indicators have also been accepted in the range. The strength of the relationship between psychological toughness and school bonding has been calculated to be equal to (0.79), indicating that the correlation is favorable. The t-test of the test (8.83) was obtained which is greater than the critical value of t at the 5% error level (1.96) and shows that the observed correlation is significant. Therefore, it can be said that there is a positive and significant relationship between students' psychological toughness and their connection to school. Also, the calculated strength of the relationship between school and aggression is equal to (-0.83), which indicates that the correlation is favorable. The t-test of the test (-9.72) was also obtained, which is smaller than the critical value of t at the 5% error level (-1.96) and shows that the observed correlation is significant. Therefore, it can be said that there is a negative and significant relationship between students' connection with school and their aggression. Also, the strength of the relationship between psychological toughness and aggression has been calculated equal to (-0.52), which indicates that the correlation is favorable. The t-test of the test (-6.62) was obtained which is smaller than the critical value of t at the 5% error level (-1.96) and shows that the observed correlation is significant. Therefore, it can be said that there is a significant negative relationship between students' psychological stubbornness and their aggression.
In order to investigate the mediating effect of school connection goals on the relationship between psychological toughness and student aggression in the hypothesis in question, the direct effect of two structures with indirect effect on the involvement of the mediating variable should be investigated in order to consider the mediator acceptable provided that the effect increases. In the present hypothesis, the direct effect is equal to (-0.52). The indirect effect if there is a mediator variable of school connection is:
(0.83-) × (0.79) = (0.655-)
Due to the fact that the direct path effect is less than the indirect path effect, so the existence of the mediating variable of the link with the school increases the strength of the relationship and the mediating role in the present hypothesis is confirmed.
The results of this main hypothesis are explained by the fact that the characteristic of psychological toughness creates a certain inner attitude in students that affects the way they deal with various academic problems and causes patience and learn to struggle in the face of adversity and to endure difficult and stressful events (et al.2016.Behroozy). Psychological toughness also causes students to have a positive attitude towards their abilities and capabilities and consider challenging situations in the school environment as an opportunity for learning, growth and academic success, not a threat to their safety and comfort. In fact, they do not ignore or underestimate the importance of problems, but face various problems actively, especially educational problems, and try to solve them (Murray. Et al.2014). Psychological toughness is rooted in concepts such as having a purpose and meaning in life, being valuable, power and responsibility resulting from individual freedom and ability to select, the importance of mental experience and the effective role of the individual in building society. The connection with the school also represents an important arena for students in which they feel safe and valued at school, feel free to face social and academic challenges, and explore new ideas in the school environment. These results are consistent with the findings of Martinez-Ferrer et al. (Martinez-Ferrer et al. 2018).
According to the results of the present study, it is suggested that in order to improve the school-student connection, workshops and guidance sessions and even group and individual counseling be organized by counselors and school officials for students, in which the necessary training related to psychological toughness for students are provided. It is also suggested that those involved in the education system in the needs assessment of in-service education programs and the development of cognitive standards using international experiences and local conditions of the country to pay more attention to these issues, and teachers benefit from the acquisition of abilities, how students grow, information about the subject of teaching, how to produce and organize subject knowledge, use of knowledge and technology skills in the learning process.