رابطه ویژگی‌های شخصیتی با حمایت اجتماعی، رضایت از زندگی و عملکرد تحصیلی دانشجویان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی (کمی )

نویسنده

گروه مدیریت آموزشی،دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی ، دانشگاه خوارزمی ،تهران ، ایران

چکیده

مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین رابطه میان ویژگی‌های شخصیتی با حمایت اجتماعی، رضایت از زندگی و عملکرد تحصیلی دانشجویان دانشگاه پیام نور یزد انجام شد. روش پژوهش توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل دانشجویان رشته روان‌شناسی دانشگاه پیام نور یزد در سال تحصیلی 1400-1399 به تعداد 477 نفر بودند. حجم نمونه تحقیق بر اساس جدول کرجسی و مورگان 213 نفر تعیین شد که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. ابزار جمع‌آوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه ویژگی‌های شخصیت کاستا و مک کری (1992)، پرسشنامه حمایت اجتماعی شربورن و استوارت (1991)، پرسشنامه رضایت از زندگی داینر (1985) و پرسشنامه عملکرد تحصیلی فام و تیلور (1999) بود. به‌منظور تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌های گردآوری‌شده از آزمون ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و آزمون رگرسیون چندمتغیره استفاده شد. یافته‌های این مطالعه نشان داد بین مؤلفه‌های متغیر ویژگی‌های شخصیتی با حمایت اجتماعی، رضایت از زندگی و عملکرد تحصیلی رابطه معنی‌دار وجود دارد (01/0 > P). به نظر می‌رسد برنامه‌ریزی در جهت تربیت کودکان در دوران اولیه آموزشی در جهت ایجاد و تقویت گرایش‌های شخصیتی و پیامدهای تحصیلی و روان‌شناختی در سال‌های بعدی زندگی سودمند باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between personality traits and social support, life satisfaction and students' academic performance

نویسنده [English]

  • Mitra Nouraldi
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits and social support, life satisfaction and academic performance of students of Payame Noor University of Yazd. The research method was descriptive-correlative. The statistical population of the study included 477 psychology students of Payame Noor University of Yazd in the academic year 2020-2021. The sample size of the study was 213 based on Krejcie and Morgan table which were selected by means of simple random sampling method. Data collection tools were Costa and McCray (1992) Personality Traits Questionnaire, Sherburn & Stewart (1991) Social Support Questionnaire, Diner Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (1985) and Pham and Taylor (1999) Academic Performance Questionnaire. In order to analyze the collected data, Pearson correlation coefficient test and multivariate regression test were used. Findings of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between the variable components of personality traits with social support, life satisfaction and academic performance (P <0.01). It seems that planning to educate children in the early years of education can be useful in order to create and strengthen personality tendencies and academic and psychological outcomes in later years of life.
Introduction
Recognizing the personality traits of individuals and using appropriate educational models in order to promote educational goals in the educational program of students is of great importance. Personality means a specific pattern of reactions, cognitions, motivations and feelings that is relatively stable over time and is useful for distinguishing people from each other. Thus, the term personality includes all the characteristics necessary to describe recurring internal states and relatively stable patterns of interpersonal differences in feeling, thinking, trying, and acting and reacting (Sharifi, et al., 2021). In the model of the Big Five Personality Factors, they introduced five strong factors including extroversion-introversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and longing for new experiences (Tavakoli & Mansour Lakoorej, 2020). According to psychologists, personality creates boundaries for academic performance that may be adapted to environmental conditions and demands. The most important criterion for measuring learners in the educational process is academic performance and application of what has been learned (Amiri, 2021). Academic performance means the ability to prove success in achieving the outcome for which it is designed and planned (Lester, et al., 2013). Self-efficacy means feeling confident in one's ability to meet the requirements of education and educational activities. Emotional effects are related to a person's reaction to a set of emotions such as anxiety and worry. Planning means the ability to organize lesson activities in a specific and feasible manner and the proper use of time to accomplished educational assignments. Lack of control over outcome means the belief that increasing one's activities does not lead to the desired result. Motivation also refers to the empowerment of behavior for further study and academic motivation to obtain a higher score and obtain a job or to improve skills and general knowledge (Mohamadikarkani, et al., 2019). This study tries to answer the question whether there is a significant relationship between personality traits with social support, life satisfaction and academic performance of students of Payame Noor University of Yazd?
Theoretical framework
Studies have shown that there is a relationship between personality traits and academic performance. In a study over the students, Atash Afrooz and Araban showed that personality traits of openness and conscientiousness enhance academic performance by encouraging students to adopt an in-depth study approach. Compatibility personality traits also improve academic performance in students by adopting a strategic study approach (Atashafrouz & Araban, 2017). Ghasemi in a study on female high school students showed that there is a positive relationship between personality traits and academic performance (Ghasemi, 2016). Another factor related to personality traits is social support. Social support refers to tangible informational, emotional, and instrumental responses that one receives from others (Mahdian & Ghaffari, 2016). Azizi & Shahbazian's study of migraine patients showed that the relationships between all five personality dimensions with irrational beliefs and perceptions of social support were significant (Azizi & shahbaziyan Khonig, 2018). life satisfaction is a factor that can be related to people's personality traits. According to Diner, life satisfaction is the positive perception and pleasant feeling of a person according to his values, needs and desires towards different realms or qualities of life (Diener, et al., 2003). The idea that life satisfaction is hidden in potential growth, self-realization and satisfaction of needs is rooted in the theory of humanism and positive psychology (Kvintova & Sigmund, 2016). People with higher life satisfaction use more effective and appropriate coping styles, experience deeper emotions, have better general health, and have fewer personality problems (Haroonrashidi & Sharifinia, 2021). Life satisfaction has a significant effect on all aspects of personality, the quality of action and reaction toward the life events (Ilanloo, et al., 2020).
Methodology
The present study was descriptive correlative. This research was also applied in terms of purpose. The statistical population of the study included 15,000 students of Payame Noor University of Yazd in the academic year 2020-2021. Due to the large size of the statistical population, the researcher limited his statistical population to 477 psychology students. The sample size was 213 based on Krejcie and Morgan table. Costa and McCray personality traits questionnaire, Sherborne and Stewart social support questionnaire, Diner life satisfaction questionnaire and Pham and Taylor academic performance questionnaire were used to collect information. In order to analyze the collected data, Pearson correlation coefficient test and multivariate (focal) regression test were used by SPSS statistical software.
Discussion and Results
The highest mean of variable components of personality traits is related to extraversion-introversion component with an average of 35.74 with standard deviation of 8.73, the lowest mean of variable of personality traits is drelated to neurotic component with average of 26.67 with standard deviation of 8.98, the mean of social support variable is 70.99 with a standard deviation of 11.18, the average variable of life satisfaction is 15.97 with a standard deviation of 5.83, the average variable of academic performance is 71.10 with a standard deviation of 11.21.
The significance level of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for all studied variables is more than 0.05. Therefore, the test result is not significant for any of the variables and as a result, the distribution of all variables is normal, so parametric tests can be used to test the research hypotheses. Multivariate (focal) regression statistical test has been used to test the research hypothesis. The value of Wilkes's lambda statistic is 0.831, which is significant at the level of α = 0.01. Therefore, it can be said that there is a significant relationship between the components of personality traits as "predictor variables" with social support, life satisfaction and academic performance as "criterion variable" with a probability of 0.99. The root correlation value of the first root is 0.590, the percentage of common variance between the two combinations of predictor and property variables is 59%. Therefore, it can be said with 99% probability that 59% of variable components of personality traits based on the variables of social support, life satisfaction, and academic performance is predictable. The first focal correlation is significant and in the first focal correlation, respectively, the variables of racism (-0.799), extroversion-introversion (0.724), longing for new experiences (0.716), agreeableness (0.719) Conscientiousness (0.727) show predictability and the greatest effect of these variables on the criterion variables (neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion-introversion, agreeableness, eagerness to new experiences) are predictable, respectively. In the first focal correlation, the neuroticism variable was 79.9%, the conscientiousness variable was 72.7%, the extroversion-introversion variable was 72.4%, the agreeableness variable was 71.9%, and the desire for new experiences variable was 71.6%. Predictable components of social support are life satisfaction and academic performance, and in general it can be said that the predictive power of variable components of personality traits (neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion-introversion, agreeableness, eagerness to experience Fresh) for social support, life satisfaction and academic performance is (73.70) percent.
Conclusion
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits with social support, life satisfaction and academic performance of students of Payame Noor University of Yazd. Findings of this study showed that there is a relationship between the variable components of personality traits with social support, life satisfaction and academic performance. Regarding the relationship between personality traits and academic performance, the present finding was consistent with the study of Atashafrouz and Araban (2017), Ghasemi (2016), Moradi (2015) and Tamannaeifar and Mansourinik (2014). Explaining this finding, it can be said that neuroticism is a negative predictor of academic performance, this aspect of personality trait includes sensitivity of having unreal thoughts, weak control over desires, tendency to experience psychological disturbance in the form of agitation, anger, dejection, shame, hate, and a range of negative emotions; Regarding the relationship between personality traits and life satisfaction, the present finding is consistent with the study of Diner et al. (2003), Blunti et al. (2004), Joshanloo and Afshari (2011), Volodina et al. (2019) and Dehghani (2018).. In explaining this finding, it can be said that the extrovert has a strong predetermined goal and desire. These positive traits in extroverted personalities help to solve problems in the educational environment through planning and perseverance and increase life satisfaction. Regarding the relationship between personality traits and social support, the present finding is consistent with the study of Baranzuk (2019), Kokraviz et al. (2008) and Azizi and Shahbazian Khooniq (2018). In explaining this finding, it can be said that people with a high degree of extraversion have a greater desire and interest in their work and try to show their creativity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • personality traits
  • Social Support
  • life satisfaction
  • educational performance
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