عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of research-based education on self-direction of ninth grade female students in Tonekabon. The present study was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population of this study was ninth grade female students in Tonekabon. The sample size consisted of 40 students who were randomly selected from multistage clusters. The data collection tool was Fisher et al. (2001) self-directed learning questionnaire. Students with a standard deviation score below average were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The research-based training program applied to the experimental group for seven one-hour sessions, but no training was conducted in the control group. Finally, post-test was performed on both groups. Data analysis via multivariate analysis of covariance showed that research-based education is effective on the willingness to learn, self-control and self-management of ninth grade female students in Tonekabon (P <0.05). As a result, in order to increase students' self-direction, it is suggested to use research-based teaching method and other active methods.
Today, pre-designed education as well as teaching methods based on information transfer, which ultimately leads to the training of dependent and passive learners, is not accepted, thus, instead of transmitting information to learners, they should be taught how to learn and access information, and leave the responsibility of learning to them. Appeared. Learning environments should also support learners' independence and competence and strengthen their self-directed learning skills (Davarpanah, et al., 2019). Self-directed learning is a process in which learners are responsible for identifying their learning needs, planning, implementing, and evaluating their learning outcomes, and activate on their own initiative and independence to achieve predetermined learning goals (Fisher & King, 2010). In self-directed learning, the individual sets learning goals, chooses the appropriate learning method, and evaluates learning outcomes independently or with the help of an educator (Avdal, 2013). Studies have shown that self-direction in learning motivates self-regulatory behaviors and indicates autonomy in activities (Pali & Ezani, 2020). Self-direction also affects academic performance (Rascon-Hernan, et al., 2019; Kidane, et al., 2020; Karimi, et al., 2020). Self-directed learning leads to academic motivation (Yousefy, A., & Gordanshekan, 2015) and learners who use high-level cognitive strategies or metacognitive strategies achieve higher progress in their learning activities (Peng, 2012).
A look at the studies conducted and a review of the theoretical basis of the research showed that despite the importance of research-based teaching method, no study has been done on the effectiveness of this method on student self-direction. The misunderstandings existing in our country about this teaching method and also the necessity of introducing new teaching methods that can solve some of the problems of the educational system of the country are the most important reasons that justify the importance and necessity of the present research. Demonstrating the practical aspects of new teaching methods can help teachers break down the barriers of bigotry and conservatism in teaching and learning and guide students toward a brighter future and a learning community tomorrow. Therefore, the question has been raised in the present study whether research-based education is effective on self-direction of ninth grade female students in Tonekabon city?
In this study, the students were all ninth grade female from Tonekabon city and it has been studied as a case study.
Research-based teaching method or research-based training is one of the active and process-oriented teaching methods that is based on challenging questions and vague situations and gives the student the opportunity to design and make decisions and solve problems (Afshari, 2014). The research-based learning model, also known as the 5E training model, was introduced by Bayby in the early 1980s (Amirtimori, et al., 2014) and learning is considered as an iterative cycle consisting of five stages of activation, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluation (Afshari, 2014). Instead of emphasizing on information and facts and presenting them, this model teaches students how to learn and equips them with skills and abilities that can constantly meet their information needs (Asadian & Habibi Azar, 2013). A research-based educational model actively engages learners in daily tasks and expands deeper and more vital thinking (Huet, et al., 2007). Dostal & Klement (2015) point out that research-based teaching provides a deep understanding of the subject, learning ways of thinking, discovering and solving problems, and learning how to learn new things, and provides ample opportunity to increase students' creativity (Dostal & Klement). , 2015). A study by Arantes Amaral et al. (2018) showed that research-based learning method improves students' learning (Arantes Amaral, et al., 2018). The study of Putra (2017) showed that the 5E educational model improved self-regulated learning in learners (Putra, 2017).
The present study is a quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The statistical population of the present study included all 606 ninth grade female students in Tonekabon. The sample size consisted of 40 ninth grade female students of the first secondary school of Tonekabon city who were randomly selected from multi-stage clusters. First, a girls 'school was selected from among the girls' secondary schools in Tonekabon city. In this school, 9 classes with 215 students, all ninth grade students were identified as basic statistical samples and a self-guidance questionnaire was administered to them. Among those who had good self-direction (mean point score as a criterion that 20 people were above average and 20 people were below average), 40 people were randomly selected. On 20 subjects in the experimental group, research-based training was presented during 7 sessions of training, two one-hour sessions per week, and finally the test results were compared with 20 subjects in the control group. Data collection tool was the standard self-directed assessment questionnaire in the learning of the students. This questionnaire was developed by Fisher et al. (2001) to replace the Gaglimino (1977) Learning Self-Guidance Readiness Scale (Fisher, et al., 2001).
Discussion and Results
The results of Leuven test of variance error of dependent variables after the test of willingness to learn, self-control and self-management showed that the assumption of equality of variance error was not questioned and the analysis of covariance is unobstructed. After adjusting the post-test scores of desire to learn, there is a significant effect of posttest factor and group. Modified scores of research-based education suggest that the experimental group receives an impact from the control group on the realization of the desire to learn. In other words, the group variable explains 93.4% of the variance of changes in the desire to learn in the experimental group. After adjusting the self-control post-test scores, there is a significant effect of the post-test factor and the group. Adjusted scores of research-based education suggest that the experimental group receives influence from the control group on the realization of self-control. In other words, the group variable explains 67.5% of the variance of self-control changes in the experimental group. After adjusting the self-management post-test scores, there is a significant effect of the post-test factor and the group. The adjusted scores of research-based education suggest that the experimental group has influenced the control group in achieving self-management. In other words, the group variable explains 75.2% of the variance of self-management changes in the experimental group.
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of research-based education on self-direction of ninth grade female students in Tonekabon. Findings of this study showed that research-based education has an effect on the realization of the desire to learn. This finding is consistent with the study of Dostal and Clement (Dostal, & Klement, 2015) who stated that research-based education is effective to determine what people learn. This finding also maintained the study of Karsli and Ayas (Karsli & Ayas, 2014) that the research-based education model increases students' motivation to learn. In explaining this finding, we can point to the important role of willingness to learn as one of the indicators of self-direction among students, which received the most impact. The findings of this study also showed that research-based education has been effective in increasing students' self-control. This finding is consistent with the study of Asadian and Habibi Azar (Asadian, & Habibi Azar, 2013) that this educational model equips students with skills to be able to meet their own information needs. In fact, self-control is one of the important variables of self-direction that with such skills, students are able to analyze, plan, implement and evaluate learning activities independently. Another finding of this study showed that research-based education is effective in increasing students' self-management. In a general conclusion, the findings of this study showed that research-based education has been effective on self-direction of ninth grade female students. The Putra study (2017), which showed that the 5E educational model improves self-regulated learning in learners, also confirms and supports this finding. Self-directed learning is a process in which learners are responsible for identifying their educational needs, planning, implementing and evaluating their learning outcomes, and work on initiative and independent from others to achieve predetermined learning goals. In fact, conducting this research-based research showed that self-directed learning is an approach to the learning process that encourages learners to identify their own learning goals or needs through shared cognition and participatory decision making.