مقایسه یادگیری دانشجویان آموزش دیده به روش الگوی مدیریت با دانشجویان آموزش دیده به شیوه موجود در تدریس زبان دوم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی (کمی )

نویسنده

استادیار ،عضو هیات علمی ، گروه آموزشی زبانهای خارجی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین تفاوت یادگیری دانشجویان آموزش دیده به روش الگوی مدیریت با دانشجویان آموزش دیده به شیوه موجود در تدریس زبان دوم (مطالعه موردی: دانشجویان واحدهای تهران شمال و علوم و تحقیقات تهران) انجام شد.جامعه­آماری شامل دانشجویان واحدهای تهران شمال و علوم و تحقیقات مشعول به تحصیل  در سال 1399-1398 بوده است. حجم نمونه بر اساس جدول کرجسی مورگان (1970)، 285 دانشجو تعیین شد. الگوی مدیریت آموزش بر اساس تدریس در درس زبان دوم برای گروه آزمایش و روش تدریس متداول و سنتی برای گروه کنترل به‌ کار گرفته شد. قبل از اجرای سناریوی آموزشی، آزمون پیشرفت تحصیلی درس زبان دوم اجرا شد و پس از اجرای الگوی مذکور برای گروه آزمایش، پس آزمون از هر دو گروه به عمل آمد. داده‌های جمع‌آوری شده از آزمون t زوجی نشان دادند میانگین در پس‌آزمون گروه آزمایش بالاتر از پس‌آزمون گروه کنترل بوده است (05/0> P)؛ در نتیجه سطح یادگیری دانشجویان آموزش دیده به روش الگوی مدیریت با دانشجویان آموزش دیده به شیوه موجود در درس زبان دوم تفاوت دارد. همچنین پیشنهاد می شود الگوی مدیریت آموزش در برنامه درسی زبان دوم  به مهارت های گوش کردن، صحبت کردن، خواندن و نوشتن برای آشنایی هرچه بیشتر دانشجو گنجانده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison between learning of students trained by the management model method and students trained in the method of teaching a second language

نویسنده [English]

  • leila poloie
Assistant Professor, Faculty Member, Department of Foreign Languages, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the difference between learning of students trained by the management model method and students trained in the second language teaching method (Case study: students of North Tehran and Tehran Science and Research Branches). Statistical population including students of North Tehran And science and research in the academic year of 2019-2020. The sample size was consisting of 285 students based on Krejcie Morgan (1970) table. The teaching management model based on teaching in the second language course was used for the experimental group, and the common and traditional teaching method was used for the control group. The test of academic achievement of the second language course was performed Before the implementation of the educational scenario, and the post-test was performed in both groups after the implementation of the mentioned model for the experimental group. Data collected from paired t-test showed that the mean in the post-test of the experimental group was higher than the post-test of the control group (P <0.05); As a result, the level of learning of students trained in the management model method differs from that of students trained in the second language course. Also including the education management model in the second language curriculum to the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing is suggested to make the student more familiar.
Introduction
Language refers to the systematic and conventional use of sounds, signs, or symbols written in a human society for communication and expression (Wright, 2010). The second language has emerged as a language that is mostly used for international and intercultural communication (Ibrahim & Ibrahim, 2017) which has changed into the dominant international language during the process of globalization (Shulgina & Sagaran, 2017). Second language teaching has long been under consideration of Iranian education experts (Ahmadi, et al., 2020) and significant changes in language teaching have occurred in the last few decades (Hinkel, 2012). However, despite the high cost of educating teachers and instructors in the preparation of second language textbooks at schools and universities, the results are not very satisfactory (Phish gadam & Rostami Sarabi, 2015). Learning a second language, like any other learning, seems to require proper teaching methods and effective strategies. A group of curriculum designers and implementers believe that the poor thinking of students is the result of the dominance of traditional methods in schools. They suggest that educators need to rethink their role and focus on the teaching skills and strategies that students need (Behrangi, 2010). There are many patterns for teaching and learning. In the present study, Behrangi (2010) education management model has been investigated. This model is designed to ensure the improvement of learning quality and the effects of education on learners' behavior based on scientific achievements in the field of education, learning psychology and educational management (Kordloo & Behrangi, 2020). In the field of theory, this model receives the theoretical and operational heritage of more than 216 studies conducted from 1995 to 2010 in relation to improving education (Behrangi, et al., 2018) and now citing research results to confirm of the power of this pattern is far greater. In the model of education management, the following steps have been considered: 1) structuring the main concepts and topics of the lesson in the form of drawing maps and diagrams, 2) illustrating general and detailed topics of the course, 3) formative assessment of student readiness based on the lesson plan, 4) mastery Finding and its role in assessing the amount of students' mental mastery through homework, 5) Redrawing the diagram of the connection between the topics and sub-topics of the course independently, 6) Grouping and self-assessment and its role in strengthening student self-confidence, 7 Jurchin and the beginning of students' creativity in learning (preparation of optimal diagrams), 8) Development of teaching scenario of lesson content (teaching narration), 9) Education (implementation of the prepared program) and 10) Final evaluation and its effect on identifying learning problems ( Behrangi, et al., 2015). Considering the importance of the second language course and its role in most aspects of life, including education, job, social life and etc., we can see that unfortunately in our country the importance of learning is still not understood as expected and this subject might require adopting a special teaching style and pattern. Therefore, the question can be asked whether there is a difference between learning students trained in the management model method and students trained in the second language course.
Case study
In this study, students of foreign languages in North Tehran and science and research studying in the academic year 2019-2020 have been studied as a case study.
Theoretical framework
A review of theoretical foundations and research shows the importance of removing barriers in learning a second language and adapting new learning strategies. In a study entitled "the limit of the effect of rational framework of education management in applying new educational technology on motivation and academic achievement of the science course of female students in the fifth grade of elementary school ", Kordloo & Behrangi, (2020) showed that the rational framework of education management in the use of new educational technologies is effective on motivation and academic achievement in students' science course (Kordloo & Behrangi, 2020). "Assessment of the needs of teachers working in exceptional education in Tabriz for appropriate education and evaluation of its effects in implementation" was conducted on teachers working in exceptional education in Tabriz, showed that the model of educational management is effective on teachers' attitudes and reducing developmental educational needs, complementary and Problem solving of exceptional school teachers, and it is better to be included it in the curriculum of exceptional school teacher training course in order to familiarizing the teachers as much as possible (Azimi, 2020).
Methodology
The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The statistical population included students of foreign languages in North Tehran and science and research students studying in 2019-2020. The sample was selected by cluster sampling. The sample size was selected based on Krejcie & Morgan (Krejcie, & Morgan, 1970) table. Out of 1099 students studying foreign languages, 285 students were selected, of which 143 were included in the experimental group and 142 in the control group. The criteria for placing individuals in experimental and sample groups were that students who were selected from the University of North Tehran Branch were in the experimental group and students who were selected from the Science and Research Branch were in the control group.
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypothesis in both experimental and control groups, paired t-test was used. Samples were selected in the post-test of the control group and in the post-test of the experimental group by the academic achievement test and the difference between the mean of the two groups was shown to be 1.28378, and because the significance level is less than 0.05, the hypothesis of inequality between the mean of two groups is acceptable.  In other words, the average of the two groups is not equal and due to the negative upper and lower bound, the average in the post-test of the experimental group was higher than the post-test of the control group. As a result, the learning level of students trained in the management model method is different from the students trained in the method used in the second language lesson is different.
 
Conclusion
The aim of this study was to determine the difference between learning of students trained in the management model method with students trained in the second language course. This finding is consistent with this study (Sanginabadi, 2016; Heidari, et al., 2010) which showed that the active teaching model is more effective in learning than the traditional teaching model. Also, the model of education management with its significant educational, upbringing and curricular effects has led to an increase in group and group work among students and obliges each student to teach his / her subject to his / her peers and learn from them. Explaining this finding, it can be said that the education management model emphasizes participatory learning and as Asadian et al. (Asadian, et al., 2015) showed in their study, learning and teaching in a participatory method promotes the students' performance in second language lessons more than in the current teaching method. Explaining the findings, we can also say that second language learning skills include listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, which are an effective cognitive process for learning. After receiving the learned information, students need constructive techniques to practice the material so that they can memorize it, and in fact, they need to learn better, and if they have the appropriate and desired techniques to control, it will lead to progress in learning. In this respect, this finding is consistent with the study of Behrangi and Kordlo (Behrangi & Kordlo, 2017) which showed that the model of education management is effective on metacognitive learning. It is also consistent with the study of Al-Kahtani (Al-Kahtani, 2006) and Al-Kahtani (2001) that learning a second language with the educational technologies' help increases the learning of this course. At the end of this research report, it should be mentioned that one of the limitations of this study is the limitation of the two universities, which should be considered in generalizing the results. It is also suggested that the education management model be included in the second language curriculum to the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing to make the student more familiar.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Education Management Model
  • second language teaching
  • Learning
Abdisa, G., & Getinet, T. (2012). The effect of guided discovery on students’ Physics achievement. Journal of Physics Education4(6), 530-537.
Afshar, M. (2009). Comparison and comparison of available methods with desirable evaluation methods in the English language course of the Secondary School District of Shiraz. Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch. (In Persian)
Ahmadi Safa, M., Deniye, S., Sohrabi, S., Farahani, M., Khasemi, D., & Sa'ad Panah, E. (2018). Evaluating the First Language English Language Course: "Parseekt One". Critical Studies in Texts & Programs of Human Sciences, 18(8), 1-24. (In Persian)
Ahmadi, K., Ranjdoust, S., Azimi, M. (2020). Explaining the Experience of Education and Training and English Language Education Specialists for teaching English in the first grade of high school. Research in Curriculum Planning, 17(64), 91-102. (In Persian)
Al-Kahtani, S. A. (2001). Computer-assisted language learning in EFL instruction at selected Saudi Arabian universities: Profiles of faculty (pp. 1-239). Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
Almekhlafi, A. G. (2006). The effect of computer assisted language learning (CALL) on United Arab Emirates English as a foreign language (EFL) school students’ achievement and attitude. Journal of Interactive learning research17(2), 121-142.
Asadian, S., Piri, M., & Hasan Reihani, L. (2015). A Comparison of the effectiveness of cooperative and individual teaching methods on educational achievement of English in grade one of high school. Technology of Education Journal9(4), 259-266. (In Persian)
Azimi, R. (2020). Needs assessment of teachers working in exceptional education in the city of Tabriz to appropriate education and evaluation of its effects in implementation. Management and Educational Perspective, 1(2), 37-53. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22034/jmep.2020.227749.1008. (In Persian) 
Behrangi, M. R. (2010).A Study of Management Teaching Model on Education from the Perspective of Creativity in Learning and Creativity Learning, Third National Conference on Creativity, TRIZ and Engineering and Innovation Management of Iran, Tehran,,, https://civilica.com/doc/96595
Behrangi, M. R., & Kordlo, M. (2017). The effect of teaching experimental science through Management Education Model on Meta Cognitive learning. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Administration, 8(1), 89-116. (In Persian)
Behrangi, M. R., Zabarjadi Ashti, A., Tavana, F., & Nasiri, R. A. (2017). Application of Bandura Self-Efficacy Theory Identifiers with Mathematics Education Management Model: A New Strategy in Growing Self-Efficacy of High School Male Students, Journal of Organizational Education Management, 5 (2), 9-44.. (In Persian)
Behrangi, M. R., Nasiri, R., & Zebarjadi Ashti, A. (2015). Promoting education management new model's application in teaching science. Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovations, 15(3), 85-108. (In Persian)
Behrangi, M., & Nasiri, R. (2017). The Effect of Teaching Science Using Education Management Model on Students' Self-Directed Learning 3th Grade Secondary Schools. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Administration, 7(28), 109-130. (In Persian)
Behrangi, M., & Seidi, S. (2017). Studying the nurturing and instructing effects of self-directed management education model in religious science on students’ self-directed behavior and academic achievement. Journal of Managing Education in Organizations, 6(1), 211-247.
Behrangi, M., Dehghani, A., & Darabi, F. (2018). Comparing Education Management Model and Discovery Model of Teaching Based on their overhauling & common dimensions. Research in Curriculum Planning15(59), 166-181. (In Persian)
Effati Kalaateh, M., Behrangi, M.R., & Monfaredi Raaz, B. (2018). Improving Bilingual Students’ Language Skills through the Use of Teaching Model in Philosophy for Children and Community of Enquiry. Quarterly Journal of Education, 34(3), 121-141. (In Persian)
Ebrahimpour Koumle, S., & Sohani, A. (2015). Investigating the effect of teaching English with an educational management model on strengthening the critical thinking of first year middle school students. International Conference on Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences. (In Persian)
Frank, A. T. (2018). A phenomenological study of teacher perspective on implementing a growth mindset with English language learners. Lamar University-Beaumont.
Gholizadeh, B. (2013). Assessment of Teaching Problems - Secondary English Language Learning from the Perspectives of Teachers and Students of Third Grade Public High Schools in Pars Abad Moghan in the Academic Year 2013-2013. Master thesis. Department of Curriculum Planning. Faculty of Humanities. Islamic Azad University of Marand. (In Persian)
Heidari, G. H., Modanloo, Y., Niazazari, M., & Jafari Galocheh, A. (2010). Comparing the Effect of English Language Teaching by Instructional Softwares and Classical Method on Students Academic Achievement Gholam Hossein Heidari – Yasaman. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 1(1), 103-115. (In Persian)
Hinkel, E. (2012). Language learning and language culture in a changing world. Applied Research on English Language1(2), 45-56.
Ibrahim, M. K., & Ibrahim, Y. A. (2017). Communicative English language teaching in Egypt: Classroom practice and challenges. Issues in Educational Research27(2), 285-313.
Khezri, A., Marzoghi, R., Jahani, J., & Razmjoo, S. A. (2019). Designing an Evaluation Framework of English Language Curriculum in Secondary Schooling of Islamic Republic of Iran. Research in Curriculum Planning, 16(35), 147-161. (In Persian)
Kordloo, A., Behrangi, M. (2020). The effect of intellectual scaffolding on educational management in the application of new educational technologies on academic motivation and academic achievement in science courses for female students in the fifth grade of elementary school. Management and Educational Perspective, 2(1), 19-33. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.22034/jmep.2020.231073.1012. (In Persian)
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement30(3), 607-610.
Mahmoodi, M. H., & Moradi, M. (2015). Qualitative Critique and Evaluation of English for Schools (Prospect 1) with an Emphasis on Foreign Language Teaching Methodology. Critical Studies in Text & Programs Of Human Science, 15(36), 179-96. (In Persian)
Mesbah, Z., Behrangi, M. (2019). The effect of implementing Management education model with transformational leadership style by Biology Teachers on the freshmanhigh school girlstudents’ responsibility and achievement in Biology Les. Research in Biology Education, 1(2), 35-56. (In Persian)
Nestor, A. (2017). Investigating mindset theories: The implications for classroom instruction and professional development (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).
Phish gadam, R., & Rostami Sarabi, Z. (2015). The 7th Review of the English Book Review from the Perspective of the Modeling Model - The Relationship-Based Individual Differences. Critical Studies in Text & Programs Of Human Science, 3(15), 25-42. (In Persian)
Shulgina, T., & Sagaran, G. (2017). A Survey of English Language Teaching in Higher Institutions of Learning in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.
Smith, M., & Firth, J. (2018). Psychology in the Classroom: A Teacher's Guide to what Works. Routledge.
Solleymanpoor, J. (2019). Relationship between Learning Styles and Language Instruction Skills of High School Students. Management and Educational Perspective, 1(1), 45-62. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22034/jmep.2019.100583. (In Persian)
Sanginabadi, N. (2016). Study and comparison of traditional and active teaching model. The first international conference on modern research in the field of educational sciences and psychology and social studies in Iran. (In Persian)
Wright, W. E. (2010). Foundations for teaching English language learners: Research, theory, policy, and practice. Caslon Pub..
Zabarjadi Ashti, A. (2013). The effectiveness of the model of managing mathematics education in the first year of high school in academic achievement and self-efficacy of male students in Asadabad city in the academic year of 1993-92, Master's thesis of Tarbiat Moallem University. (In Persian).
Zoghipoor, S. (2012). Documenting the importance of the science education management model by identifying the impact of the application of the principles of organizational health in the management of the second grade geography high school in Kooh dasht girls' high school. Master's thesis. Teacher Training University - Tehran - Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology. (In Persian)