پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین تفاوت یادگیری دانشجویان آموزش دیده به روش الگوی مدیریت با دانشجویان آموزش دیده به شیوه موجود در تدریس زبان دوم (مطالعه موردی: دانشجویان واحدهای تهران شمال و علوم و تحقیقات تهران) انجام شد.جامعهآماری شامل دانشجویان واحدهای تهران شمال و علوم و تحقیقات مشعول به تحصیل در سال 1399-1398 بوده است. حجم نمونه بر اساس جدول کرجسی مورگان (1970)، 285 دانشجو تعیین شد. الگوی مدیریت آموزش بر اساس تدریس در درس زبان دوم برای گروه آزمایش و روش تدریس متداول و سنتی برای گروه کنترل به کار گرفته شد. قبل از اجرای سناریوی آموزشی، آزمون پیشرفت تحصیلی درس زبان دوم اجرا شد و پس از اجرای الگوی مذکور برای گروه آزمایش، پس آزمون از هر دو گروه به عمل آمد. دادههای جمعآوری شده از آزمون t زوجی نشان دادند میانگین در پسآزمون گروه آزمایش بالاتر از پسآزمون گروه کنترل بوده است (05/0> P)؛ در نتیجه سطح یادگیری دانشجویان آموزش دیده به روش الگوی مدیریت با دانشجویان آموزش دیده به شیوه موجود در درس زبان دوم تفاوت دارد. همچنین پیشنهاد می شود الگوی مدیریت آموزش در برنامه درسی زبان دوم به مهارت های گوش کردن، صحبت کردن، خواندن و نوشتن برای آشنایی هرچه بیشتر دانشجو گنجانده شود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparison between learning of students trained by the management model method and students trained in the method of teaching a second language
The aim of this study was to determine the difference between learning of students trained by the management model method and students trained in the second language teaching method (Case study: students of North Tehran and Tehran Science and Research Branches). Statistical population including students of North Tehran And science and research in the academic year of 2019-2020. The sample size was consisting of 285 students based on Krejcie Morgan (1970) table. The teaching management model based on teaching in the second language course was used for the experimental group, and the common and traditional teaching method was used for the control group. The test of academic achievement of the second language course was performed Before the implementation of the educational scenario, and the post-test was performed in both groups after the implementation of the mentioned model for the experimental group. Data collected from paired t-test showed that the mean in the post-test of the experimental group was higher than the post-test of the control group (P <0.05); As a result, the level of learning of students trained in the management model method differs from that of students trained in the second language course. Also including the education management model in the second language curriculum to the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing is suggested to make the student more familiar.
Language refers to the systematic and conventional use of sounds, signs, or symbols written in a human society for communication and expression (Wright, 2010). The second language has emerged as a language that is mostly used for international and intercultural communication (Ibrahim & Ibrahim, 2017) which has changed into the dominant international language during the process of globalization (Shulgina & Sagaran, 2017). Second language teaching has long been under consideration of Iranian education experts (Ahmadi, et al., 2020) and significant changes in language teaching have occurred in the last few decades (Hinkel, 2012). However, despite the high cost of educating teachers and instructors in the preparation of second language textbooks at schools and universities, the results are not very satisfactory (Phish gadam & Rostami Sarabi, 2015). Learning a second language, like any other learning, seems to require proper teaching methods and effective strategies. A group of curriculum designers and implementers believe that the poor thinking of students is the result of the dominance of traditional methods in schools. They suggest that educators need to rethink their role and focus on the teaching skills and strategies that students need (Behrangi, 2010). There are many patterns for teaching and learning. In the present study, Behrangi (2010) education management model has been investigated. This model is designed to ensure the improvement of learning quality and the effects of education on learners' behavior based on scientific achievements in the field of education, learning psychology and educational management (Kordloo & Behrangi, 2020). In the field of theory, this model receives the theoretical and operational heritage of more than 216 studies conducted from 1995 to 2010 in relation to improving education (Behrangi, et al., 2018) and now citing research results to confirm of the power of this pattern is far greater. In the model of education management, the following steps have been considered: 1) structuring the main concepts and topics of the lesson in the form of drawing maps and diagrams, 2) illustrating general and detailed topics of the course, 3) formative assessment of student readiness based on the lesson plan, 4) mastery Finding and its role in assessing the amount of students' mental mastery through homework, 5) Redrawing the diagram of the connection between the topics and sub-topics of the course independently, 6) Grouping and self-assessment and its role in strengthening student self-confidence, 7 Jurchin and the beginning of students' creativity in learning (preparation of optimal diagrams), 8) Development of teaching scenario of lesson content (teaching narration), 9) Education (implementation of the prepared program) and 10) Final evaluation and its effect on identifying learning problems ( Behrangi, et al., 2015). Considering the importance of the second language course and its role in most aspects of life, including education, job, social life and etc., we can see that unfortunately in our country the importance of learning is still not understood as expected and this subject might require adopting a special teaching style and pattern. Therefore, the question can be asked whether there is a difference between learning students trained in the management model method and students trained in the second language course.
In this study, students of foreign languages in North Tehran and science and research studying in the academic year 2019-2020 have been studied as a case study.
A review of theoretical foundations and research shows the importance of removing barriers in learning a second language and adapting new learning strategies. In a study entitled "the limit of the effect of rational framework of education management in applying new educational technology on motivation and academic achievement of the science course of female students in the fifth grade of elementary school ", Kordloo & Behrangi, (2020) showed that the rational framework of education management in the use of new educational technologies is effective on motivation and academic achievement in students' science course (Kordloo & Behrangi, 2020). "Assessment of the needs of teachers working in exceptional education in Tabriz for appropriate education and evaluation of its effects in implementation" was conducted on teachers working in exceptional education in Tabriz, showed that the model of educational management is effective on teachers' attitudes and reducing developmental educational needs, complementary and Problem solving of exceptional school teachers, and it is better to be included it in the curriculum of exceptional school teacher training course in order to familiarizing the teachers as much as possible (Azimi, 2020).
The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The statistical population included students of foreign languages in North Tehran and science and research students studying in 2019-2020. The sample was selected by cluster sampling. The sample size was selected based on Krejcie & Morgan (Krejcie, & Morgan, 1970) table. Out of 1099 students studying foreign languages, 285 students were selected, of which 143 were included in the experimental group and 142 in the control group. The criteria for placing individuals in experimental and sample groups were that students who were selected from the University of North Tehran Branch were in the experimental group and students who were selected from the Science and Research Branch were in the control group.
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypothesis in both experimental and control groups, paired t-test was used. Samples were selected in the post-test of the control group and in the post-test of the experimental group by the academic achievement test and the difference between the mean of the two groups was shown to be 1.28378, and because the significance level is less than 0.05, the hypothesis of inequality between the mean of two groups is acceptable. In other words, the average of the two groups is not equal and due to the negative upper and lower bound, the average in the post-test of the experimental group was higher than the post-test of the control group. As a result, the learning level of students trained in the management model method is different from the students trained in the method used in the second language lesson is different.
The aim of this study was to determine the difference between learning of students trained in the management model method with students trained in the second language course. This finding is consistent with this study (Sanginabadi, 2016; Heidari, et al., 2010) which showed that the active teaching model is more effective in learning than the traditional teaching model. Also, the model of education management with its significant educational, upbringing and curricular effects has led to an increase in group and group work among students and obliges each student to teach his / her subject to his / her peers and learn from them. Explaining this finding, it can be said that the education management model emphasizes participatory learning and as Asadian et al. (Asadian, et al., 2015) showed in their study, learning and teaching in a participatory method promotes the students' performance in second language lessons more than in the current teaching method. Explaining the findings, we can also say that second language learning skills include listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, which are an effective cognitive process for learning. After receiving the learned information, students need constructive techniques to practice the material so that they can memorize it, and in fact, they need to learn better, and if they have the appropriate and desired techniques to control, it will lead to progress in learning. In this respect, this finding is consistent with the study of Behrangi and Kordlo (Behrangi & Kordlo, 2017) which showed that the model of education management is effective on metacognitive learning. It is also consistent with the study of Al-Kahtani (Al-Kahtani, 2006) and Al-Kahtani (2001) that learning a second language with the educational technologies' help increases the learning of this course. At the end of this research report, it should be mentioned that one of the limitations of this study is the limitation of the two universities, which should be considered in generalizing the results. It is also suggested that the education management model be included in the second language curriculum to the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing to make the student more familiar.