عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of this study was to determine the role of educational technology equipment and teaching aids in improving the academic achievement of sixth grade students in Rudsar. The method of this study was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of this study included primary school teachers and students in Rudsar. 31 teachers were selected by means of census sampling to specify the sample size of the statistical population. To determine the sample size of the statistical population of students, cluster random sampling method was used and 210 students were selected. Data collection tools were Pham and Taylor (1999) Standard Academic Achievement Questionnaire, Yavuz Educational Technology Equipment Standard Questionnaire (2005) and Abdi (2012) Standard Educational Aids Questionnaire. Stepwise regression test was applied for data analysis. Findings of this study showed that educational technology equipment and teaching aids have an effect on improving the academic achievement of sixth grade students in Rudsar city .
Academic achievement is one of the most important variables of any educational system and even some experts refer to it as the main indicator of measuring the quality of education in any country. Accordingly, the educational system can be considered efficient and successful when the courses result the highest possible scores (Karimzadeh, et al., 2020). The importance of academic achievement has made this category to change in accordance to the information age; So that comprehensive programs have been written in many countries to equip schools with various facilities such as computers and the Internet, and special attention has been paid to the role of educational technology equipment and teaching aids, including the invention of new teaching methods, the use of computers in classrooms, the apply of educational softwares and multimedia, and utilizing the Internet and social networks in their curricula (Mohamadi.Y. 2019). Using technology in teaching is a method based on psychological findings. Research shows that the main role of educational technology is to help improve the efficiency and quality of the teaching and learning process (Hoseini, M, 2015). Teaching aids are the basic and important necessities of education and make teaching more effective by using different senses (Tatari, et al., 2015). Educational technology in educational topics leads to the use of speed, accuracy and ease in teaching and learning (Hassevoort, et al., 2018). Education requires practice and learning, and technology is the effective use of teaching aids, and various techniques will be introduced to schools when teachers become familiar with and believe in it and act on their beliefs; because the optimal use and acquisition of skills in any work require the use and implementation of it. The use of teaching aids allows students to employ all their senses to learn; because teaching aids provide a tangible basis for thinking and constructing concepts, thereby reducing students'''' oral response. Today, education officials and experienced teachers together have understood and felt the necessity of recognizing and using of the teaching aids more than ever before, so that tomorrow''''s society will be more prosperous. Given the importance of teaching aids and materials and comparing it with the expectations of using these tools during teaching, the main question of the research is whether the equipment of educational technologies and teaching aids in improving the academic achievement of knowledge has any impact on the rate of promotion of the sixth grade students of Rudsar city.
In this study, the primary schools in Rudsar have been studied as a case study.
Educational technology is the analysis of learning problems and methods and the design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of educational and non-educational processes and resources to improve learning and performance in various educational centers, special training environments and job centers. Using technology in teaching is a method based on psychological findings. Research shows that the main role of educational technology is to help improve the efficiency and quality of the teaching and learning process. Technology does not teach learners, but rather influences the performance of the educator. The presence of teaching aids and necessary facilities will greatly help the teaching process. (Poloie, L., & Farhadian, F.2020). Teaching aids are tools and objects that help learners to understand the subject of education better and more. Teaching aids are one of the basic and important needs of education and make teaching more effective by using different senses. (Guraya, S. Y., & Abdalla, M. E.2020.).
The present study was descriptive-correlational in nature and applicable in terms of purpose. The statistical population of this study included 31 primary school teachers in Rudsar and 578 primary school students in the sixth grade of Rudsar schools. The sample size of the statistical population of school teachers in Rudsar city was 31 teachers by census sampling method and the statistical population of students was 210 students by cluster random sampling method. Data collection tools were standard questionnaires of Pham and Taylor (1999) academic achievement, Yavuz (2005) educational technology equipment and Abdi (2012) educational aids. Data analysis was performed using stepwise regression test.
Discussion and Results
A stepwise regression model has been used in order to determine the best predictor of academic achievement among the predictor variables of educational technology equipment and teaching aids. According to the results of the first regression model, the standardized value of β related to the technology application variable is 0.359. This number shows that the technology application advantages variable affects directly on academic achievement, and the technology application advantages variable 0.359 predicts changes in the academic achievement criterion variable. If a unit of change is observed in the predictor variable of the advantages of technology application, the criterion of academic achievement variable changes to 0.359; which means that academic achievement increases by increasing the variable advantages of technology application. As can be seen, the value of T related to the technology application advantage variable (5.950) is significant at the level of 0.01. which means that the benefits of technology application variable has been able to justify 12.5% of the variance of academic achievement. Also, in the second model, the variables of technology application advantages and technology application assumptions entered into the equation, and the standardized value of β related to the technology application assumptions variable is 0.297. This number indicates that the variable of perceptions of technology application directly affects the variable of academic achievement, and the variable of perceptions of application of technology 0.297 predicts changes in the variable of the criterion of academic achievement. If a unit of change is observed in the predictor variable of listening skills, the variable of academic achievement criterion changes to 0.297; which means that the variable of academic achievement increases as the variable of perceptions of technology application increases. As can be seen, the value of T related to the variable of application of technology application is 2.239 and at the level of 0.01 is significant. That is, by adding the variable of technology application perceptions to the technology application benefits variable in the second model, 15% variance of academic achievement has been added and the variables of technology application benefits and technology application perceptions have been able to justify about 14% variance of academic achievement variable. Considering the significance of the calculated relationship with 0.99 probability, it is concluded that the researchhypothesis that educational technology equipment and teaching aids have an effect on improving the academic achievement of sixth grade students in Rudsar city is confirmed and the variables Advantages of technology application and ideas of technology application are the best predictors for academic achievement variable.
The findings of this study showed that there is a positive relationship between the variable of educational technology equipment and academic achievement. This result is consistent with and supported by research findings (Rezaee, J.etal.2016; Mohamadi, Y.2019; Guraya, S. Y., & Abdalla, M. E. 2020). It can be explained that when teachers and students believe that high levels of learning can be achieved with less time through the use of educational technologies, it can be easier to improve students'''' academic achievement by applying this Technologies improved. On the other hand, the effect of teaching aids on creating interest and motivation in students makes them more interested in using these tools and creates more motivation to do their homework. It also showed that there is a positive relationship between the variable of teaching aids and academic achievement. As long as teachers are familiar with active methods of teaching aids at high levels and have the necessary information about the types of educational technologies and know how to use each technology in different conditions, There will be better hope to improve the academic progress of students; Because the level of teachers'''' awareness in the use of teaching aids has a great impact on creating a culture and reducing educational errors. Therefore, when students have problems and make mistakes in the use of educational technologies, teachers direct them and advise them of their performance feedback on the use of technology. In this way, students will be more aware of the use of educational technologies and as a result, their academic progress will be continuously improved. The findings of this study showed that the components of technology application perceptions and the advantages of technology application of the variable of educational technology equipment are the best predictors of academic achievement.