The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between digital literacy and knowledge management with teacher empowerment in Dehdasht. The research was descriptive (non-experimental)-correlative in nature. The statistical population of the study included all teachers (2200) in Kohgiluyeh city in 1398. The sample size was based on Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table and 327 primary school teachers in Dehdasht were selected as a statistical sample by stratified random sampling. Data were analyzed using standard digital literacy questionnaires of Towhidi-Asl (2012), knowledge management of Newman and Conrad (1999) and Spritzer (1995). Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. The results showed that at the level of confidence (p <0.05), the correlation coefficient obtained (r = 35.6%) between digital literacy and empowerment; and (r = 54.2%) between knowledge management and empowerment were positive and significant. The results of regression analysis showed that the model used to predict teacher empowerment in Dehdasht is significant and this model is able to explain the relationship between variables. The variables of knowledge management and digital literacy, with beta coefficients of 29.2% and 12.4%, respectively, were able to predict the empowerment of teachers in Dehdasht. Based on the beta coefficient, for increasing one standard unit of information retrieval and information and communication management, 21% and 48.5% of the standard unit of the empowerment of teachers increases, respectively. Based on the beta coefficient, for increasing one standard unit of the subscales of information retrieval and information and communication management, 21%, and 48.5% of knowledge creation, 22.7% of knowledge retention (absorption) and 6 57.5% and 61.3% of knowledge transfer of the standard unit of the empowerment of teachers in Dehdasht will increase. Based on this, it is concluded that in order to empower teachers, it is necessary to pay attention to knowledge management (ability and up-to-datedness of the principal) and to promote teachers' digital literacy.
Today, one of the challenges of organizations in general and the education organization in particular is the insufficient use of intellectual resources and the potential capacity of human capital. In education, teachers are among the human resources whose ability is vitally to be paid attention (najafi, 2020). Empowerment begins with a change in employees' beliefs, thoughts, and attitudes; which means that they must believe that they have the ability and competence to perform their tasks successfully, that they feel free to act and are independent in their activities, and that they must be treated fairly and honestly. Empowerment is the safest way to share power. This method will lead to a sense of confidence, double energy, pride, commitment and self-reliance, and ultimately, performance improvement. Employee empowerment is known as a motivational measure that aims to increase performance by increasing participation opportunities and involvement in decision making. This is mainly about creating trust, motivation, participation in decision-making, and removing any boundaries between an employee and a senior manager (Hoang, 2017). In the present age, which is called the age of information and knowledge, the main competitive advantage of organizations lies in their knowledge capital, and knowledge is a source of power for employees and vital for organizations to compete in dynamic environments, and the driving force of comprehensive and sustainable development. Knowledge management in the organization depends on the attitudes of the people who created this culture (Poor Rashidi, 2021). Digital literacy is not just about technology or digital tools; Because understanding social and cultural issues, critical thinking and creativity are skills that people should use while working with any tool (Soleimani Nezhad et al, 2021). Digital literacy is a type of literacy related to the use of digital technologies. Given the above, the main issue of the research is whether there is a significant relationship between digital literacy and knowledge management with empowerment of teachers.
Digital literacy refers to the types of literacy associated with the use of new digital technologies (Mohammadyari & Singh, 2014). Digital refers to the activities related to modern communication and information media (Goodfellow, 2011). To be digitally literate, you must have access to a wide range of cultural resources and practices that you can use for digital tools.
Knowledge management is the process by which an organization generates wealth from its knowledge or intellectual capital. Knowledge management is the process by which organizations use their collected information. Approaches to knowledge management depend on the management perspective. Differences can be due to information-based perspectives, technology-based perspectives, and culture-based perspectives (Goottschal, 2005).
Empowerment is the development and expansion of the ability and competence of individuals to achieve continuous improvement in the performance of the organization. Empowerment in the organizational concept is a change in culture, courage in creating, and leading an organizational and professional environment of employees (Ayouzi Khamenei, 2016).
Allah Gholizadeh (2020) in a study entitled The relationship between knowledge management processes and human resource empowerment in the staff of the Martial Arts Federation showed that there is a significant relationship between staff knowledge management processes and their empowerment.
Najafi (2020) in a study entitled Modeling the empowerment of teachers with psychological capital, knowledge management and the mediating role of quality of work life, showed that among the three variables of psychological capital, knowledge management, and the mediating role of quality of work life; knowledge management has the greatest effect to empower the teachers.
The research is quantitative and descriptive-correlative. The statistical population of the study includes all 2200 high school teachers in Dehdasht in 2019. The sample size was based on Krejcie and Morgan (1970) tab, and 327 high school teachers in Dehdasht were selected as a statistical sample by stratified random sampling method. In this type of sampling, each member of the defined community has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample; then, using a random number table, 327 people are selected as a sample. Being independent means that the election of a member has no effect on the election of other members of society. The information was collected by field method and survey method and by means of a questionnaire. To collect data related to teachers' digital literacy variable, the digital literacy questionnaire of Towhidi Asl (2012) was used; and for teachers' knowledge management variable, knowledge management questionair of Newman and Ken Rad (1999); and for empowerment variable, Spritzer questionnaire (1995) were used..
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypotheses and analyze the data using SPSS software, inferential statistics were used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that Pearson correlation coefficient between digital literacy variable and teacher empowerment was 0.356 and its significance level was 0.001 which is direct and significant, and this result can be generalized to the statistical population with a probability of 5% error. The adjusted coefficient of determination obtained between digital literacy and teacher empowerment was 0.124; which means that by controlling other variables, 12.4% of the changes in the variable of teacher empowerment depend on digital literacy, therefore, there is a positive and significant relationship between digital literacy and the ability of high school teachers in Dehdasht. Pearson correlation coefficient between knowledge management variable and teacher empowerment is equal to 0.542 and its significance level is equal to 0.001, which is direct and significant, and this result can be generalized to the statistical population with a probability of 5% error. The adjusted coefficient of determination obtained between knowledge management and teacher empowerment was 0.292; which means that by controlling other variables, 29.2% of the changes in the variable of teacher empowerment depend on knowledge management. There is a positive and significant relationship between knowledge management and the ability of primary school teachers in Dehdasht. The subscales of information retrieval and information and communication management have a positive and significant effect on the teachers' empowerment variable, respectively, of 0.210 and 0.485. Based on the beta coefficient, for increasing one standard unit of information retrieval and information and communication management, 21% and 48.5% of the standard unit of the empowerment of teachers increases, respectively. There is a positive and significant relationship between the components of digital literacy, information retrieval components and information management with the ability of Dehdasht junior high school teachers.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between digital literacy and knowledge management with teacher empowerment in Dehdasht. Findings of this hypothesis correspond with the results of Moradi & castle (2018), Hasani Kaveh & Saman Sheikhesmaeili (2016), Alvarez (2018), Choi, & et al, (2016), Faulkner & Latham (2016), Gyurova, & Zeleeva, (2017); Education In order to empower teachers in terms of knowledge and skills in schools, it is necessary for Education Office to pay attention to two important and fundamental issues of management and digital and virtual space. Today's education, in order to succeed in its important and great tasks, needs capable managers and up-to-date and advanced tools and facilities, and platforms for implementing future-generation education programs on the web and the Internet. Familiarity with a variety of new software and programs in the digital world is necessary for the dissemination and training of students and teachers in all parts of the country. Today's management has to look at educational justice from a new perspective; access to facilities and tools, the Internet, the web, hardware tools such as computers, tablets, smartphones and the etc, and hundreds more concerns that are still being met and provided for students. We are at the beginning of the road, during which very knowledgeable and capable managers are needed.
According to the present study, it is suggested that the Education and training, perform a specialized test of digital literacy and technology for the applicants to select the principals of schools and offices. Principals should be encouraged to create a participatory atmosphere in schools to share knowledge to empower teachers, in-service workshops on teaching new software related to Windows and Android, and due to the high importance of digital and electronic technologies, software training appropriate to the job of a teacher should be provided. The Education, instead of central archives, should focus on core skills and increase software capabilities. Senior principals or school principals should transfer their managerial knowledge and experience to teachers with high moral and work conscience, in order to increase the ability of teachers.