Document Type : Original Article (Quantified)


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sports Management, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 PhD student in Sports Management, Kermanshah Branch, Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 PhD Student, Department of Sports Management, Kurdistan University, Sanandaj, Iran

4 PhD student in Sports Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran


Extended Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of social responsibility of sports teachers on optimizing leisure time and preventing social harms of students. The study method was descriptive- correlative. The statistical population of the study included all 2950female high school students in the seventh district of Tehran. The sample size was determined based on Krejcie and Morgan table of 370 students who were selected by means of cluster random sampling method. Data collection tools included the standard questionnaire of Barton Goff (2012), the researcher-made questionnaire of Kashefi and Nazari (2018) and the questionnaire of Aaghaii and Timurtash (2009). The validity of the questionnaires in terms of form and content was confirmed by sports management professors and their reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient test. Data analyzing was accomplished by Spss statistical software. Findings showed that the social responsibility of sports teachers is effective in optimizing students' leisure time and social harms. Furthermore, leisure time is effective in preventing students' social harms. Favorable ‌ spending of leisure time ‌ in a comprehensive and essential form ‌ ‌ ‌allows young people ‌ to meet the aspects of life; ‌ experience of teamwork; ‌ skills; ‌ and design a bright and promising future.
Various activities are performed in the education system for the growth and excellence of individuals and bringing human beings to the desired perfection; including educational, research, cultural, social, athletic, etc. (Ahmadi & et al, 2020). Today, social responsibility goes far beyond its field of activity and influence in the past, which was humanitarian. Social responsibility has found its role and place in the field of business to achieve sustainable development, on preventive solutions to the social and environmental challenges and similar areas (Chau & et al, 2018). Therefore, one of the most important indicators and components of social growth is social responsibility (Commentary & et al, 2019). Responsibility is obligation and inner commitment of the individual in the proper performance of all activities entrusted to her (Ester Cerin & et al, 2017). On the other hand, sometimes, there is a kind of confusion accompanied by a decrease in self-esteem and self-concept during a special and sensitive period of adolescence, which leads to a decrease in natural activities and social interactions. Therefore, the adolescent can be prepared to learn ethical concepts by being taught responsibility and assigning appropriate plans to him/her (Faith & et al, 2016). Participation in sports activities is one of the educational activities during which the students can develop characteristics such as responsibility, cooperation and social relations (Ghalavandi & et al, 2018). Nowadays, some concerns of parents and teachers are optimal learning and correct education and avoidance of social harms of students, and there are many ways to achieve these goals, including all kinds of encouragement and laziness, and visiting doctors and psychologists, and etc., nontheless few people have tried the effect of exercise on learning and reducing social harms. Also, in our country, less attention is paid to students' leisure time, and the reason is that leisure time has not yet found its real place in society. The plans of education officials and families and the responsibility of teachers, especially physical education teachers, are not enough for students' leisure time and do not provide them with satisfaction. Accordingly, the responsibility of teachers, who have an effective role in reducing the social harms of students in their spare time, is felt more. According to the contents of this article, an attempt is made to answer the question that how far the sport teachers are effective on optimizing leisure time and preventing social harms of students?
Theoretical framework
Inadequate and unfavorable social results are obtained when "leisure" is not designed for attractive, fun and uplifting programs full of "educational" elements. Spending this time in the context of healthy activities can reduce its harmful aspects and be a preventive measure against adolescents going astray on these ages (Mehrdad, 2011). A study by Yen et al. Found that adolescents who spend their leisure time with friends in "unsupervised activities" are more likely to exhibit "aggressive" behaviors than adolescents who are "organized" and "active" during leisure time and also indoor activities (Khwaja Nouri & Hasheminia. 2010). In a study Hosseini and Mirzaei Khalis (2021) examined the mediating role of social goals in the relationship between mental vulnerability and responsibility in female high school students, and the results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between students' psychological vulnerability and their social goals responsibility. (Hosseini and Mirzaei Khalis, 2021).
The present study is methodically descriptive-correlative. The statistical population of this study includes statistically 2950 female high school students in the seventh district of Tehran, of which 370 students were selected as a research sample by cluster random sampling. The validity of the questionnaires was determined by the point views of sports management experts and so were the questionnaires approved. The reliability of the questionnaires in this study was determined by Cronbach's alpha. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the social responsibility, leisure and social harm questionnaires were 0.75, 0.85 and 0.86, respectively, which has the desired reliability of the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics such as central indicators were used to analyze the data and correlation coefficient and regression were used to measure the relationship between variables.
Discussion and Results
The camera-Watson test was used to test the research hypotheses. Considering the value of simple correlation coefficient, it can be said that sport has an effect on optimizing the leisure time of female high school students in the seventh district of Tehran (R = 0.146). Also, the social responsibility of sports teachers has an effect on the prevention of social harms of female high school students in the seventh district of Tehran (R = 0.253). Leisure time also has an effect on the prevention of social harms of female high school students in the seventh district of Tehran (R = 0.351).
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of social responsibility of sports teachers on the optimization of leisure time and prevention of social harms of students. Researches in the field of social responsibility can be referred such as Modarres Yazdi et al. (2020), Taghvai Yazdi (2016), Qalavandi et al., and in the field of leisure time, such as Hdayyan and Dodkhah (2020), Tamizifar & Azizifar (2021), Khater Wisie and Yektayar (2020), Mousavi Rad and Keshavarz (2018), Ester et al. (Ester, & Eva, 2020), Chau et al. (2018). Research results show that the variables of social responsibility and leisure are effective as two factors. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that the social responsibility of sports teachers is directly related to students 'leisure time. Therefore, leisure time not only prevents the spread of social anomalies, but also helps the students' development in a way that they feel responsible towards the community and peers, so leisure activities for a student are conditions for trial and error and social experience that allows him to enter the community and take responsibility. Among the limitations of the present study, it can be mentioned that during the present study the researcher found that other variables (economic-facilities, cultural-social, and family and personal factor) are effective in preventing social harms, but in the present study it has been assumed to be constant. Sports can have a significant effect on the vitality of male and female students. Students who are in a better mental condition are undoubtedly safe from most social ills such as addiction and sexual perversion. These students, healthy and vital. are more successful in other stages of life, (A healthy mind in a healthy body) and they will be successful parents in the future.


Ahmadi, S., (2020). A Study of the Relationship between Social Responsibility and Friendship. Proceedings of the General Conference on Social Responsibility of Youth, Social Sciences Research Institute of Shiraz University. (In Persian)  
Amiri, A. (2019). The role of school atmosphere and emotional intelligence in entrepreneurial self-efficacy of female students in Mashhad conservatories. Journal of Management and Education Perspective, 1 (2), 15-36. doi: 10.22034 / jmep.2020.227912.1010. (In Persian)  
Chau, Y., hiddep, V., Dafna. M., Tien. C., & Adrian. E. B. (2018). cross-sectional association between occupation and leisure-time setting, physical activity and obesity inworking adults, Preventive medicine, N, 12. pp: 195-200.
Cheong, Y., Gauvain, M., & Palbusa, J. A. (2019). Communication with friends and the academic adjustment of first-and non-first-generation students in the first year of college. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 1521025119834253.
Ester, C., & Eva, L. (2020) ,How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity, Social Science & Medicine 66. pp: 2596-2609.
Ghalavandi, H., Kabiri, A., & Wonderful, Vahid. (2018). The Relationship between Social Responsibility and Teamwork of Urmia University Employees, Journal of Applied Sociology, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp. 111-120. (In Persian)  
Ghani, A., & Timurtash, H. (2019). Investigating the Relationship and Process of Social Damage and Social Security, Volume 3-4, pp: 3-22. (In Persian)  
Habibi, A. (2018), SPSS Applied Education, Parsomodir Electronic Publishing. (In Persian)  
Hamidi, F., & Ghaytazi. M. (2017). Comparison of perfectionism, procrastination and accountability in Ahwaz Teacher Training Centers, by gender, Journal of Cultural-Educational Women and Family, Sixth Year, No. 18, pp. 188-159. (In Persian)  
Hdayyan, M., & Dodkhah, R. (2020). The Role and Importance of Exercise in Students' Leisure Time and Prevention of Social ViolenceThird National Conference on Sport Sciences and Physical Education. Tehran, Institute for the Development and Promotion of Basic Sciences and Techniques. (In Persian)  
Hellison, D. & Walsh, D. (2017). Responsibility‐Based Youth ProgramsEvaluation: Investigating the Investigators. Quest, 54(4), 292‐307.
Hellison, D. (2019). Teaching personal and social responsibility through physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.
Hosseini, S, Mirzaei Khalis, M. (2021). The mediating role of social goals in the relationship between mental vulnerability and responsibility of female high school students. Journal of Management and Education Perspectives, 3 (2), 129-150. doi: 10.22034 / jmep.2021.265558.1058. (In Persian)  
 Khater Wisie, F., & Yektayar, M. )2020.( Study of how to spend leisure time and identify obstacles to sports participation of employees of Sanandaj city departments, Master's thesis, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch. (In Persian)  
Khwaja Nouri, B., & Hasheminia, F. (2010). Relationship between leisure time and work. Journal of Social Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, No. 1: Pages 31-57. (In Persian)  
Mehrdad Hossein (2011). How and the harm of recognizing the time of leisure 12 adolescents 12 to 17 years old in Lorestan province, ‌ Quarterly Journal of New Thoughts ‌ Department of Educational Sciences, No. 1: Pages 140-123. (In Persian)  
Modarres Yazdi, E., Jalali, S. A., & Manifestation, P. (2020). Relationship between Attachment Styles and Identity Styles with Students' Responsibility, Psychosocial Studies and Educational Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp: 53-58. (In Persian)  
Musavi Rad, S. T., & Keshavarz, L. (2018). The relationship between leisure time and mental health of athletic and non-athlete teachers in Shahin Shahr, Organizational Behavioral Organizational Management Studies in Sports, Volume II, No. 6,(2018), pp: 73-80. (In Persian)  
Najafi, M., Bigdeli, I., Allah Dashiri, G., & Rahimian, Booger. (2016). Prediction of Social Damage Based on Life Skills in Students, School Psychology Magazine, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp: 144-163. (In Persian)  
Naraghi, E. (1971). Young University Society, first edition. (In Persian)  
Nazari, P., & Kashefi. F. (2019). The Effect of Communication Skills on Mental Health and Its Role on Active Social Activities of the Employees of the Education and Education Administration of Hamedan City, the Presentation of the Master's Degree Program in Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan. (In Persian)  
Rfare, J. (2018). Teaching Life Skills, A Strategy for Social Injury Prevention, A New Approach to Educational Management, First Year, No. 2, pp: 131-146. (In Persian)  
Sanei, M., Zoroastrian, S., Norouzi, S., & Hosseini, R. (2021). The effect of physical activity on quality of life and life expectancy in the elderly in Mazandaran province. Sports Management Studies, No. 17, pp. 137-158. (In Persian)  
Sediq Sarvestani, R., (2006). Social pathology. Tehran: its publication. (In Persian)  
Shalian, J. (2021). Relationship between teachers' communication skills and students' academic well-being with emphasis on the mediating role of academic adjustment in girls' high schools in Kashmar. Journal of Management and Education Perspectives, 3 (1), 167-195. doi: 10.22034 / jmep.2021.282353.1056. (In Persian)  
Shamloo, S., Mental Health. (In Persian)  
Shim, S. S., Cho, Y., & Wang, C. (2017). Classroom goal structures, social achievement goals, and adjustment in middle school. Learning and Instruction, 23,PP: 69-77.
 Taghvaei Yazdi, M. (2016).  Investigating the Relationship between Organizational Health Organizational Components and Organizational Trust and Social Responsibility of Sari Education Teachers, A New Approach in Educational Management, No. 27, pp. 95-116. (In Persian)  
Tamezefar, R., & Azizifar, K. (2021). Investigating the relationship between leisure time and social vitality in Isfahan, Social Work Journal, No. 6, pp. 209-221. (In Persian)  
Tiwari, P., & Bhat, A. K. (2020). The Effect of Emotional Intelligence, Empathy and Perceived Social Pressure on Predicting Social Entrepreneurial Intention: A Field Research. In Methodological Issues in Social Entrepreneurship Knowledge and Practice (pp. 137- 158). Springer, Singapore.
Tondnevis, F. (1996). How to spend leisure time with students of the country's universities with emphasis on sports activities, PhD thesis, University of Tehran. (In Persian)